Expression of androgen and progesterone receptors in primary human meningiomas

View More View Less
  • 1 The Center for Blood Research and Neurosurgical Service, Massachusetts General Hospital; Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School; Departments of Cancer Biology and Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; and Department of Neuropathology, Radcliffe Infirmary, University of Oxford, Oxford, England
Restricted access

Purchase Now

USD  $45.00

JNS + Pediatrics - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $515.00

JNS + Pediatrics + Spine - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $612.00
USD  $45.00
USD  $515.00
USD  $612.00
Print or Print + Online Sign in

✓ Meningiomas are common brain tumors that show a predilection for females and become more aggressive during pregnancy and menses. The existence of gender-specific hormone receptors in meningiomas has long been a matter of controversy; the recent cloning of androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors has facilitated their direct evaluation. The authors have demonstrated the expression of androgen and progesterone receptor messenger ribonucleic acid and protein product in nine primary human meningiomas by Northern blot analysis. Cellular localization was achieved by in situ hybridization analysis. Estrogen receptor expression was not detected. Normal adult meninges were shown to express very low levels of both androgen and progesterone receptors.

JNS + Pediatrics - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $515.00

JNS + Pediatrics + Spine - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $612.00
USD  $515.00
USD  $612.00
  • 1.

    Barrack ER, & Tindall DJ: A critical evaluation of the use of androgen receptor assays to predict the androgen responsiveness of prostatic cancer, in Coffey DS, , Bruchovsky N, & Gardner WA Jr, et al (eds): Current Concepts and Approaches to the Study of Prostatic Cancer. New York: Alan R Liss, 1987, pp 155187 Barrack ER, Tindall DJ: A critical evaluation of the use of androgen receptor assays to predict the androgen responsiveness of prostatic cancer, in Coffey DS, Bruchovsky N, Gardner WA Jr, et al (eds): Current Concepts and Approaches to the Study of Prostatic Cancer. New York: Alan R Liss, 1987, pp 155–187

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Beato M: Gene regulation by steroid hormones. Cell 56:335344, 1989 Beato M: Gene regulation by steroid hormones. Cell 56:335–344, 1989

  • 3.

    Bickerstaff ER, , Small JM, & Guest IA: The relapsing course of certain meningiomas in relation to pregnancy and menstruation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 21:8991, 1958 Bickerstaff ER, Small JM, Guest IA: The relapsing course of certain meningiomas in relation to pregnancy and menstruation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 21:89–91, 1958

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Blankenstein MA, , Blaauw G, & Lamberts SJ: Progestin and estrogen receptors in human meningioma. Clin Neuropharmacol 7:363367, 1984 Blankenstein MA, Blaauw G, Lamberts SJ: Progestin and estrogen receptors in human meningioma. Clin Neuropharmacol 7:363–367, 1984

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Blankenstein MA, , van't Verlaat JW, & Croughs RJM: Hormone dependency of meningiomas. Lancet 1:1381, 1989 (Letter) Blankenstein MA, van't Verlaat JW, Croughs RJM: Hormone dependency of meningiomas. Lancet 1:1381, 1989 (Letter)

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Burger PC, & Vogel FS: Surgical Pathology of the Nervous System and Its Coverings, ed 2. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1982, pp 226242 Burger PC, Vogel FS: Surgical Pathology of the Nervous System and Its Coverings, ed 2. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1982, pp 226–242

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Cahill DW, , Bashirelahi N, & Solomon LW, et al: Estrogen and progesterone receptors in meningiomas. J Neurosurg 60:985993, 1984 Cahill DW, Bashirelahi N, Solomon LW, et al: Estrogen and progesterone receptors in meningiomas. J Neurosurg 60:985–993, 1984

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Carstens C, , Messe E, & Zang KD, et al: Human KRAS oncogene expression in meningioma. Cancer Lett 43:3741, 1988 Carstens C, Messe E, Zang KD, et al: Human KRAS oncogene expression in meningioma. Cancer Lett 43:37–41, 1988

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Chang C, , Kokontis J, & Liao S: Molecular cloning of human and rat complementary DNA encoding androgen receptors. Science 240:324326, 1988 Chang C, Kokontis J, Liao S: Molecular cloning of human and rat complementary DNA encoding androgen receptors. Science 240:324–326, 1988

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Conneely OM, , Sullivan WP, & Toft DO, et al: Molecular cloning of the chicken progesterone receptor. Science 233:767770, 1986 Conneely OM, Sullivan WP, Toft DO, et al: Molecular cloning of the chicken progesterone receptor. Science 233:767–770, 1986

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Cormier EM, , Wolf MF, & Jordan VC: Decrease in estradiol-stimulated progesterone receptor production in MCF-7 cells by epidermal growth factor and possible clinical implication for paracrine-regulated breast cancer growth. Cancer Res 49:576580, 1989 Cormier EM, Wolf MF, Jordan VC: Decrease in estradiol-stimulated progesterone receptor production in MCF-7 cells by epidermal growth factor and possible clinical implication for paracrine-regulated breast cancer growth. Cancer Res 49:576–580, 1989

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Cushing H, & Eisenhardt L: Meningiomas: Their Classification, Regional Behavior, Life History, and Surgical End Results. Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, 1938 Cushing H, Eisenhardt L: Meningiomas: Their Classification, Regional Behavior, Life History, and Surgical End Results. Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, 1938

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Dejean A, , Bougueleret L, & Grzeschik KH, et al: Hepatitis B virus DNA integration in a sequence homologous to v-erb-A and steroid receptor genes in hepatocellular carcinoma. Nature 322:7072, 1986 (Letter) Dejean A, Bougueleret L, Grzeschik KH, et al: Hepatitis B virus DNA integration in a sequence homologous to v-erb-A and steroid receptor genes in hepatocellular carcinoma. Nature 322:70–72, 1986 (Letter)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Dickson RB, & Lippman ME: Control of human breast cancer by estrogen, growth factor, and oncogenes. Cancer Cells 3:8186, 1988 Dickson RB, Lippman ME: Control of human breast cancer by estrogen, growth factor, and oncogenes. Cancer Cells 3:81–86, 1988

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Dobrovic A, , Houle B, & Belouchi A, et al: ErbA-related sequence coding for DNA-binding hormone receptor localized to chromosome 3p21–3p25 and deleted in small cell lung carcinoma. Cancer Res 48:682685, 1988 Dobrovic A, Houle B, Belouchi A, et al: ErbA-related sequence coding for DNA-binding hormone receptor localized to chromosome 3p21–3p25 and deleted in small cell lung carcinoma. Cancer Res 48:682–685, 1988

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Ennis BW, , Valverius EM, & Bates SE, et al: Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies inhibit the autocrine-stimulated growth of MDA-468 human breast cancer cells. Mol Endocrinol 3:18301838, 1989 Ennis BW, Valverius EM, Bates SE, et al: Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies inhibit the autocrine-stimulated growth of MDA-468 human breast cancer cells. Mol Endocrinol 3:1830–1838, 1989

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Giguère V, , Yang N, & Segui P, et al: Identification of a new class of steroid hormone receptors. Nature 331:9194, 1988 (Letter) Giguère V, Yang N, Segui P, et al: Identification of a new class of steroid hormone receptors. Nature 331:91–94, 1988 (Letter)

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Green S, & Chambon P: A superfamily of potentially oncogenic hormone receptors. Nature 324:615617, 1986 Green S, Chambon P: A superfamily of potentially oncogenic hormone receptors. Nature 324:615–617, 1986

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Greene GL, , Gilna P, & Waterfield M, et al: Sequence and expression of human estrogen receptor complementary DNA. Science 231:11501154, 1986 Greene GL, Gilna P, Waterfield M, et al: Sequence and expression of human estrogen receptor complementary DNA. Science 231:1150–1154, 1986

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Grunberg SM, , Weiss MH, & Spitz IM, et al: Treatment of unresectable meningiomas with the antiprogesterone agent mifepristone. J Neurosurg 74:861866, 1991 Grunberg SM, Weiss MH, Spitz IM, et al: Treatment of unresectable meningiomas with the antiprogesterone agent mifepristone. J Neurosurg 74:861–866, 1991

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Hayward E, , Whitwell H, & Paul KS, et al: Steroid receptors in human meningioma. Clin Neuropharmacol 7:351356, 1984 Hayward E, Whitwell H, Paul KS, et al: Steroid receptors in human meningioma. Clin Neuropharmacol 7:351–356, 1984

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Hoefler H, , Childers H, & Montminy MR, et al: In situ hybridization methods for the detection of somatostatin mRNA in tissue sections using antisense RNA probes. Histochem J 18:597604, 1986 Hoefler H, Childers H, Montminy MR, et al: In situ hybridization methods for the detection of somatostatin mRNA in tissue sections using antisense RNA probes. Histochem J 18:597–604, 1986

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Jay JR, , MacLaughlin DT, & Riley KR, et al: Modulation of meningioma cell growth by sex steroid hormones in vitro. J Neurosurg 62:757762, 1985 Jay JR, MacLaughlin DT, Riley KR, et al: Modulation of meningioma cell growth by sex steroid hormones in vitro. J Neurosurg 62:757–762, 1985

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Johnson BE, , Ihde DC, & Makuch RW, et al: Myc family oncogene amplification in tumor cell lines established from small cell lung cancer patients and its relationship to clinical status and course. J Clin Invest 79:16291634, 1987 Johnson BE, Ihde DC, Makuch RW, et al: Myc family oncogene amplification in tumor cell lines established from small cell lung cancer patients and its relationship to clinical status and course. J Clin Invest 79:1629–1634, 1987

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Kinsel LB, , Szabo E, & Greene GL, et al: Immunocytochemical analysis of estrogen receptors as a predictor of prognosis in breast cancer patients: comparison with quantitative biochemical methods. Cancer Res 49:10521056, 1989 Kinsel LB, Szabo E, Greene GL, et al: Immunocytochemical analysis of estrogen receptors as a predictor of prognosis in breast cancer patients: comparison with quantitative biochemical methods. Cancer Res 49:1052–1056, 1989

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Klein-Hitpass L, , Tsai SY, & Weigel NL, et al: The progesterone receptor stimulates cell-free transcription by enhancing the formation of a stable preinitiation complex. Cell 60:247257, 1990 Klein-Hitpass L, Tsai SY, Weigel NL, et al: The progesterone receptor stimulates cell-free transcription by enhancing the formation of a stable preinitiation complex. Cell 60:247–257, 1990

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Koga M, , Musgrove EA, & Sutherland RL: Modulation of the growth-inhibitory effects of progestins and the antiestrogen hydroxyclomiphene on human breast cancer cells by epidermal growth factor and insulin. Cancer Res 49:112116, 1989 Koga M, Musgrove EA, Sutherland RL: Modulation of the growth-inhibitory effects of progestins and the antiestrogen hydroxyclomiphene on human breast cancer cells by epidermal growth factor and insulin. Cancer Res 49:112–116, 1989

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Lesch KP, , Engl HG, & Gross S: Androgen receptor binding activity in meningiomas. Surg Neurol 28:176180, 1987 Lesch KP, Engl HG, Gross S: Androgen receptor binding activity in meningiomas. Surg Neurol 28:176–180, 1987

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Lesch KP, & Fahlbusch R: Simultaneous estradiol and progesterone receptor analysis in meningiomas. Surg Neurol 26:257263, 1986 Lesch KP, Fahlbusch R: Simultaneous estradiol and progesterone receptor analysis in meningiomas. Surg Neurol 26:257–263, 1986

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Lesch KP, , Schott W, & Gross S: Estrophilin immunoreactivity versus estrogen receptor binding activity in meningiomas: evidence for multiple estrogen binding sites. Surg Neurol 28:181188, 1987 Lesch KP, Schott W, Gross S: Estrophilin immunoreactivity versus estrogen receptor binding activity in meningiomas: evidence for multiple estrogen binding sites. Surg Neurol 28:181–188, 1987

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Lubahn DB, , Joseph DR, & Sar M, et al: The human androgen receptor: complementary deoxyribonucleic acid cloning, sequence analysis and gene expression in prostate. Mol Endocrinol 2:12651275, 1988 Lubahn DB, Joseph DR, Sar M, et al: The human androgen receptor: complementary deoxyribonucleic acid cloning, sequence analysis and gene expression in prostate. Mol Endocrinol 2:1265–1275, 1988

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Lubahn DB, , Joseph DR, & Sullivan PM, et al: Cloning of human androgen receptor complementary DNA and localization to the X chromosome. Science 240:327330, 1988 Lubahn DB, Joseph DR, Sullivan PM, et al: Cloning of human androgen receptor complementary DNA and localization to the X chromosome. Science 240:327–330, 1988

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Markwalder TM, , Seiler RW, & Zava DT: Endocrine manipulation of inoperable and recurrent meningiomas — a pilot study, in Spitzy K, Karrer K (eds): Proceedings of the 13th International Conference of Chemotherapy. Vienna: Verlag H Egerman, 1983 Markwalder TM, Seiler RW, Zava DT: Endocrine manipulation of inoperable and recurrent meningiomas — a pilot study, in Spitzy K, Karrer K (eds): Proceedings of the 13th International Conference of Chemotherapy. Vienna: Verlag H Egerman, 1983

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Martuza RL, , Miller DC, & MacLaughlin DT: Estrogen and progestin binding by cytosolic and nuclear fractions of human meningiomas. J Neurosurg 62:750756, 1985 Martuza RL, Miller DC, MacLaughlin DT: Estrogen and progestin binding by cytosolic and nuclear fractions of human meningiomas. J Neurosurg 62:750–756, 1985

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Maxwell M, , Galanopoulos T, & Hedley-Whyte ET, et al: Human meningiomas co-express platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGF-receptor genes and their protein product. Int J Cancer 46:1621, 1990 Maxwell M, Galanopoulos T, Hedley-Whyte ET, et al: Human meningiomas co-express platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGF-receptor genes and their protein product. Int J Cancer 46:16–21, 1990

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Maxwell M, , Naber SP, & Wolfe HJ, et al: Coexpression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGF-receptor genes by primary human astrocytomas may contribute to their development and maintenance. J Clin Invest 86:131140, 1990 Maxwell M, Naber SP, Wolfe HJ, et al: Coexpression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGF-receptor genes by primary human astrocytomas may contribute to their development and maintenance. J Clin Invest 86:131–140, 1990

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Maxwell M, , Naber SP, & Wolfe HJ, et al: Expression of angiogenic growth factor genes in primary human astrocytomas may contribute to their growth and progression. Cancer Res 51:13451351, 1991 Maxwell M, Naber SP, Wolfe HJ, et al: Expression of angiogenic growth factor genes in primary human astrocytomas may contribute to their growth and progression. Cancer Res 51:1345–1351, 1991

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Mehta D, , Khatib R, & Patel S: Carcinoma of the breast and meningioma. Association and management. Cancer 51:19371940, 1983 Mehta D, Khatib R, Patel S: Carcinoma of the breast and meningioma. Association and management. Cancer 51:1937–1940, 1983

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Mukku VR, & Stancel GM: Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor by estrogen. J Biol Chem 260:98209824, 1985 Mukku VR, Stancel GM: Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor by estrogen. J Biol Chem 260:9820–9824, 1985

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Mulder E, , van Loon D, & de Boer W, et al: Mechanism of androgen action: recent observations on the domain structure of androgen receptors and the induction of EGF-receptors by androgens in prostate tumor cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 32:151156, 1989 Mulder E, van Loon D, de Boer W, et al: Mechanism of androgen action: recent observations on the domain structure of androgen receptors and the induction of EGF-receptors by androgens in prostate tumor cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 32:151–156, 1989

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Murphy LC, & Dotzlaw H: Endogenous growth factor expression in T-47D, human breast cancer cells, associated with reduced sensitivity to antiproliferative effects of progestins and antiestrogens. Cancer Res 49:599604, 1989 Murphy LC, Dotzlaw H: Endogenous growth factor expression in T-47D, human breast cancer cells, associated with reduced sensitivity to antiproliferative effects of progestins and antiestrogens. Cancer Res 49:599–604, 1989

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Olson JJ, , Beck DW, & Schlechte J, et al: Hormonal manipulation of meningiomas in vitro. J Neurosurg 65:99107, 1986 Olson JJ, Beck DW, Schlechte J, et al: Hormonal manipulation of meningiomas in vitro. J Neurosurg 65:99–107, 1986

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Olson JJ, , Beck DW, & Schlechte JA, et al: Effect of the antiprogesterone RU-38486 on meningioma implanted into nude mice. J Neurosurg 66:584587, 1987 Olson JJ, Beck DW, Schlechte JA, et al: Effect of the antiprogesterone RU-38486 on meningioma implanted into nude mice. J Neurosurg 66:584–587, 1987

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Poisson M, , Magdelenat H, & Foncin JF, et al: Récepteurs d'oestrogénes et de progestérone dans les méningiomes. Etude de 22 cas. Rev Neurol 136:193203, 1980 Poisson M, Magdelenat H, Foncin JF, et al: Récepteurs d'oestrogénes et de progestérone dans les méningiomes. Etude de 22 cas. Rev Neurol 136:193–203, 1980

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Poisson M, , Pertuiset BF, & Hauw JJ, et al: Steroid hormone receptors in human meningiomas, gliomas, and brain metastases. J Neuroncol 1:179189, 1983 Poisson M, Pertuiset BF, Hauw JJ, et al: Steroid hormone receptors in human meningiomas, gliomas, and brain metastases. J Neuroncol 1:179–189, 1983

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Ponte P, , Ng SY, & Engel J, et al: Evolutionary conservation in the untranslated regions of actin mRNAs: DNA sequence of a human β-actin cDNA. Nucleic Acids Res 12:16871696, 1984 Ponte P, Ng SY, Engel J, et al: Evolutionary conservation in the untranslated regions of actin mRNAs: DNA sequence of a human β-actin cDNA. Nucleic Acids Res 12:1687–1696, 1984

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Rand CW, & Andler M: Tumors of the brain complicating pregnancy. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 63:141, 1950 Rand CW, Andler M: Tumors of the brain complicating pregnancy. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 63:1–41, 1950

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Rubinstein LJ: Tumors of the Central Nervous System. Atlas of Tumor Pathology, Series 2, Fascicle 6. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1972, pp 1011 Rubinstein LJ: Tumors of the Central Nervous System. Atlas of Tumor Pathology, Series 2, Fascicle 6. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1972, pp 10–11

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Russell DS, & Rubinstein LJ: Pathology of Tumors of the Nervous System, ed 5. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1989 pp 168170 Russell DS, Rubinstein LJ: Pathology of Tumors of the Nervous System, ed 5. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1989 pp 168–170

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Saceda M, , Lippman ME, & Lindsey RK, et al: Role of an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism in the regulation of estrogen receptor mRNA in MCF-7 cells. Mol Endocrinol 3:17821787, 1989 Saceda M, Lippman ME, Lindsey RK, et al: Role of an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism in the regulation of estrogen receptor mRNA in MCF-7 cells. Mol Endocrinol 3:1782–1787, 1989

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Schnegg JF, , Gomez F, & LeMarchand-Beraud T, et al: Presence of sex steroid hormone receptors in meningioma tissue. Surg Neurol 15:415418, 1981 Schnegg JF, Gomez F, LeMarchand-Beraud T, et al: Presence of sex steroid hormone receptors in meningioma tissue. Surg Neurol 15:415–418, 1981

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Schoenberg BS, , Christine BW, & Whisnant JP: Nervous system neoplasms and primary malignancies of other sites. The unique association between meningiomas and breast cancer. Neurology 25:705712, 1975 Schoenberg BS, Christine BW, Whisnant JP: Nervous system neoplasms and primary malignancies of other sites. The unique association between meningiomas and breast cancer. Neurology 25:705–712, 1975

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Seeger RC, , Brodeur GM, & Sather H, et al: Association of multiple copies of the N-myc oncogene with rapid progression of neuroblastomas. N Engl J Med 313:11111116, 1985 Seeger RC, Brodeur GM, Sather H, et al: Association of multiple copies of the N-myc oncogene with rapid progression of neuroblastomas. N Engl J Med 313:1111–1116, 1985

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Slamon DJ, , Godolphin W, & Jones LA, et al: Studies of the HER-2/neu proto-oncogene in human breast and ovarian cancer. Science 244:707712, 1989 Slamon DJ, Godolphin W, Jones LA, et al: Studies of the HER-2/neu proto-oncogene in human breast and ovarian cancer. Science 244:707–712, 1989

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Tilzer LL, , Plapp FV, & Evans JP, et al: Steroid receptor proteins in human meningiomas. Cancer 49:633636, 1982 Tilzer LL, Plapp FV, Evans JP, et al: Steroid receptor proteins in human meningiomas. Cancer 49:633–636, 1982

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Vacca A, , Fazio VM, & Gandini O, et al: Altered restriction pattern of the putative DNA binding domain of estrogen receptor or related genes in primary human meningiomas. Int J Cancer 43:567569, 1989 Vacca A, Fazio VM, Gandini O, et al: Altered restriction pattern of the putative DNA binding domain of estrogen receptor or related genes in primary human meningiomas. Int J Cancer 43:567–569, 1989

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57.

    van de Vijver MJ, , Peterse JL, & Mooi WJ, et al: Neu-protein overexpression in breast cancer. Association with comedo-type ductal carcinoma in situ and limited prognostic value in stage II breast cancer. N Engl J Med 319:12391245, 1988 van de Vijver MJ, Peterse JL, Mooi WJ, et al: Neu-protein overexpression in breast cancer. Association with comedo-type ductal carcinoma in situ and limited prognostic value in stage II breast cancer. N Engl J Med 319:1239–1245, 1988

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    Walker-Jones D, , Valverius EM, & Stampfer MR, et al: Stimulation of epithelial membrane antigen expression by transforming growth factor-β in normal and oncogene-transformed human mammary epithelial cells. Cancer Res 49:64076411, 1989 Walker-Jones D, Valverius EM, Stampfer MR, et al: Stimulation of epithelial membrane antigen expression by transforming growth factor-β in normal and oncogene-transformed human mammary epithelial cells. Cancer Res 49:6407–6411, 1989

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    Weisman AS, , Raguet SS, & Kelly PA: Characterization of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human meningioma. Cancer Res 47:21722176, 1987 Weisman AS, Raguet SS, Kelly PA: Characterization of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human meningioma. Cancer Res 47:2172–2176, 1987

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60.

    Zava DT, , Markwalder TM, & Markwalder RV: Biological expression of steroid hormone receptors in primary meningioma cells in monolayer culture. Clin Neuropharmacol 7:382388, 1984 Zava DT, Markwalder TM, Markwalder RV: Biological expression of steroid hormone receptors in primary meningioma cells in monolayer culture. Clin Neuropharmacol 7:382–388, 1984

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Zülch KJ: Histological Typing of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1979 Zülch KJ: Histological Typing of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1979

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 558 149 3
Full Text Views 191 4 0
PDF Downloads 146 5 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0