Short pressure reactivity index versus long pressure reactivity index in the management of traumatic brain injury

Erhard W. Lang Neurosurgical Associates, Red Cross Hospital, Kassel;

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Magdalena Kasprowicz Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Instrumentation, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw, Poland; and

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Peter Smielewski Department of Neurosurgery, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

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Edgar Santos Department of Neurosurgery, University of Heidelberg, Germany;

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John Pickard Department of Neurosurgery, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

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Marek Czosnyka Department of Neurosurgery, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

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OBJECT

The pressure reactivity index (PRx) correlates with outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is used to calculate optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPopt). The PRx is a correlation coefficient between slow, spontaneous changes (0.003–0.05 Hz) in intracranial pressure (ICP) and arterial blood pressure (ABP). A novel index—the so-called long PRx (L-PRx)—that considers ABP and ICP changes (0.0008–0.008 Hz) was proposed.

METHODS

The authors compared PRx and L-PRx for 6-month outcome prediction and CPPopt calculation in 307 patients with TBI. The PRx- and L-PRx–based CPPopt were determined and the predictive power and discriminant abilities were compared.

RESULTS

The PRx and L-PRx correlation was good (R = 0.7, p < 0.00001; Spearman test). The PRx, age, CPP, and Glasgow Coma Scale score but not L-PRx were significant fatal outcome predictors (death and persistent vegetative state). There was a significant difference between the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves calculated for PRx and L-PRx (0.61 ± 0.04 vs 0.51 ± 0.04; z-statistic = −3.26, p = 0.011), which indicates a better ability by PRx than L-PRx to predict fatal outcome. The CPPopt was higher for L-PRx than for PRx, without a statistical difference (median CPPopt for L-PRx: 76.9 mm Hg, interquartile range [IQR] ± 10.1 mm Hg; median CPPopt for PRx: 74.7 mm Hg, IQR ± 8.2 mm Hg). Death was associated with CPP below CPPopt for PRx (χ2 = 30.6, p < 0.00001), and severe disability was associated with CPP above CPPopt for PRx (χ2 = 7.8, p = 0.005). These relationships were not statistically significant for CPPopt for L-PRx.

CONCLUSIONS

The PRx is superior to the L-PRx for TBI outcome prediction. Individual CPPopt for L-PRx and PRx are not statistically different. Deviations between CPP and CPPopt for PRx are relevant for outcome prediction; those between CPP and CPPopt for L-PRx are not. The PRx uses the entire B-wave spectrum for index calculation, whereas the L-PRX covers only one-third of it. This may explain the performance discrepancy.

ABBREVIATIONS

ABP = arterial blood pressure; CPPopt = optimal cerebral perfusion pressure; GCS = Glasgow Coma Scale; GOS = Glasgow Outcome Scale; ICP = intracranial pressure; IQR = interquartile range; L-PRx = long pressure reactivity index; PVS = persistent vegetative state; TBI = traumatic brain injury.
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