Hyperglycemia, excess weight, and history of hypertension as risk factors for poor outcome and cerebral infarction after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

Seppo JuvelaDepartment of Neurosurgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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 M.D., Ph.D.
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Jari SiironenDepartment of Neurosurgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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Johanna KuhmonenDepartment of Neurosurgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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Object. Stress-induced hyperglycemia has been shown to be associated with poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The authors prospectively tested whether hyperglycemia, independent of other factors, affects patient outcomes and the occurrence of cerebral infarction after SAH.

Methods. Previous diseases, health habits, medications, clinical condition, and neuroimaging variables were recorded for 175 patients with SAH who were admitted to the hospital within 48 hours after bleeding. The plasma level of glucose was measured at admission and the fasting value of glucose was measured in the morning after aneurysm occlusion. Factors found to be independently predictive of patient outcomes at 3 months after SAH onset and the appearance of cerebral infarction were tested by performing multiple logistic regression.

Plasma glucose values at admission were found to be associated with patient age, body mass index (BMI), history of hypertension, clinical condition, amount of subarachnoid or intraventricular blood, shunt-dependent hydrocephalus, outcome variables, and the appearance of cerebral infarction. When considered independently of age, clinical condition, or amount of subarachnoid, intraventricular, or intracerebral blood, the plasma glucose values at admission predicted poor outcome (per millimole/liter the odds ratio [OR] was 1.24 with a 95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.02–1.51). After an adjustment was made for the amount of subarachnoid blood, the clinical condition, and the duration of temporary artery occlusion during surgery, the BMI was found to be a significant predictor (per kilogram/square meter the OR was 1.15 with a 95% CI of 1.02–1.29) for the finding of cerebral infarction on the follow-up computerized tomography scan. Hypertension (OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.11–8.73)—but not plasma glucose (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.87–1.29)—also predicted the occurrence of infarction when tested instead of the BMI.

Conclusions. Independent of the severity of bleeding, hyperglycemia at admission seems to impair outcome, and excess weight and hypertension appear to elevate the risk of cerebral infarction after SAH.

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