The objective of this study was to determine patterns of care and outcomes in ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in a contemporary national cohort.
The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of prospective data from a nationwide multicenter registry of all aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) cases admitted to a tertiary care neurosurgical department in Switzerland in the years 2009–2015 (Swiss Study on Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage [Swiss SOS]). Patterns of care and outcomes at discharge and the 1-year follow-up in MCA aneurysm (MCAA) patients were analyzed and compared with those in a control group of patients with IAs in locations other than the MCA (non-MCAA patients). Independent predictors of a favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 3) were identified, and their effect size was determined.
Among 1866 consecutive aSAH patients, 413 (22.1%) harbored an MCAA. These MCAA patients presented with higher World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grades (p = 0.007), showed a higher rate of concomitant intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH; 41.9% vs 16.7%, p < 0.001), and experienced delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) more frequently (38.9% vs 29.4%, p = 0.001) than non-MCAA patients. After adjustment for confounders, patients with MCAA were as likely as non-MCAA patients to experience DCI (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.74–1.45, p = 0.830). Surgical treatment was the dominant treatment modality in MCAA patients and at a significantly higher rate than in non-MCAA patients (81.7% vs 36.7%, p < 0.001). An MCAA location was a strong independent predictor of surgical treatment (aOR 8.49, 95% CI 5.89–12.25, p < 0.001), despite statistical adjustment for variables traditionally associated with surgical treatment, such as (space-occupying) ICH (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.23–2.45, p = 0.002). Even though MCAA patients were less likely to die during the acute hospitalization (aOR 0.52, 0.30–0.91, p = 0.022), their rate of a favorable outcome was lower at discharge than that in non-MCAA patients (55.7% vs 63.7%, p = 0.003). At the 1-year follow-up, 68.5% and 69.6% of MCAA and non-MCAA patients, respectively, had a favorable outcome (p = 0.676).
Microsurgical occlusion remains the predominant treatment choice for about 80% of ruptured MCAAs in a European industrialized country. Although patients with MCAAs presented with worse admission grades and greater rates of concomitant ICH, in-hospital mortality was lower and long-term disability was comparable to those in patients with non-MCAA.