Association of decreased levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein with OKN-007–induced regression of tumor growth in an F98 rat glioma model

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OBJECTIVE

High-grade gliomas, such as glioblastoma (GBM), are devastating tumors with a very poor prognosis. Previously the authors have found that the nitrone compound OKN-007 (OKlahoma Nitrone 007; or disodium 4-[(tert-butyl-imino) methyl] benzene-1,3-disulfonate N-oxide) is effective against high-grade gliomas in various GBM rodent and human xenograft models. The purpose of the present study was to assess the levels of the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) in rodent gliomas treated with OKN-007 as well as determine the expression of LBP in human gliomas.

METHODS

Microarray analysis was done to assess altered gene expression following OKN-007 administration in an F98 glioma model. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was incorporated to assess LBP levels in glioma tissues, as well as blood serum, comparing results in OKN-007–treated and untreated tumor-bearing animals. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess LBP levels in varying grades of human glioma tissue sections.

RESULTS

Upon further assessment of gene expression fold changes in F98 gliomas in rats that received or did not receive OKN-007, it was found that the gene for LBP was significantly downregulated by OKN-007. Further investigation was done to see whether levels of LBP were affected by OKN-007 treatment in F98 gliomas. It was found that LBP could be detected not only in glioma tissue but also in blood serum of F98 glioma-bearing rats and that OKN-007 decreased the levels of LBP. It was also found that LBP levels are highly expressed in human high-grade glioma tissues.

CONCLUSIONS

LBP could potentially be used as a serum diagnostic marker of treatment response in high-grade gliomas.

ABBREVIATIONS ELISA = enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; GBM = glioblastoma; IHC = immunohistochemistry; LBP = lipopolysaccharide-binding protein; LPS = lipopolysaccharide; TGF-β1 = transforming growth factor–β1.
Article Information

Contributor Notes

Correspondence Rheal A. Towner: Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK. rheal-towner@omrf.org.INCLUDE WHEN CITING Published online October 18, 2019; DOI: 10.3171/2019.7.JNS182435.Disclosures Dr. Jensen reports an ownership interest in Medtronic.
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