Anaglyphic three-dimensional stereoscopic printing: revival of an old method for anatomical and surgical teaching and reporting

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  • 1 Clinical Anatomy, Department of Surgery, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia; and Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil
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✓ The authors describe how to use the three-dimensional (3D) anaglyphic method to produce stereoscopic prints for anatomical and surgical teaching and reports preparation by using currently available nonprofessional photographic and computer methods.

As with any other method of producing stereoscopic images, the anaglyphic procedure is based on the superimposition of two slightly different images of the object to be reproduced, one seen more from a left-sided point of view and the other seen more from a right-sided point of view. The pictures are obtained using a single camera, which following the first shot can be slid along a special bar for the second shot, or by using two cameras affixed to a surgical microscope. After the images have been distinguished from each other by applying different complementary color dyes, the images are scanned and superimposed on each other with the aid of nonprofessional imaging-manipulation software used on a standard personal computer (PC), and are printed using a standard printer. To be seen stereoscopically, glasses with colored lenses, normally one red and one blue, have to be used.

Stereoscopic 3D anaglyphic prints can be produced using standard photographic and PC equipment; after some training, the prints can be easily reproduced without significant cost and are particularly helpful to disclose the 3D character of anatomical structures.

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Contributor Notes

Address reprint requests to: Guilherme Carvalhal Ribas, M.D., R. Eduardo Monteiro 567, Sao Paulo 05614–120, Brazil.
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