Intraneural perineurioma of the common peroneal nerve

Case report and review of the literature

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✓ Intraneural perineurioma, or localized hypertrophic mononeuropathy (LHM), is a focal lesion that produces a slowly progressive mononeuropathy in a peripheral nerve. The authors describe the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance (MR) neurography characteristics, and pathological characteristics of a perineurioma involving the peroneal nerve. Although there has been much debate surrounding the cause of this lesion, a literature review supports the argument that this is a neoplastic lesion, best referred to as intraneural perineurioma. Surgical management includes excision to prevent progression of palsy and placement of a nerve graft if clinically indicated.

A 28-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of progressive painless right peroneal nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance neurography revealed a right common peroneal nerve mass. At surgery, the mass was easily excised, leaving significant nerve fascicles intact. Intraoperative biopsy was not performed nor was a nerve graft placed. Pathological investigation demonstrated onion bulb—shaped whorls consistent with the appearance of intraneural perineurioma; immunochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis.

A review of the literature supports the argument that perineurioma, or LHM, is a neoplastic process, making “intraneural perineurioma” the most appropriate name. The authors also demonstrate the utility of MR neurography in the identification isolated nerve tumors and review the surgical management of this lesion.

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Contributor Notes

Address reprint requests to: M. Peter Heilbrun M.D., Department of Neurosurgery, University of Utah School of Medicine, 50 North Medical Drive #3B409, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132. email: peter.heilbrun@hsc.utah.edu.
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