Effect of direct arterial bypass on the prevention of future stroke in patients with the hemorrhagic variety of moyamoya disease

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Object. The authors evaluated the effects of superficial temporal artery—middle cerebral artery (STA—MCA) bypass in the prevention of future stroke, including rebleeding or an ischemic event, in patients suffering from hemorrhagic moyamoya disease by comparing this method with indirect bypass and conservative treatment.

Methods. Twenty-two patients who had hemorrhagic moyamoya disease but no aneurysm comprised the study group. These patients' clinical charts were examined with respect to their treatment and clinical course after an initial hemorrhagic episode. The mean age of the patients was 43 years and the follow-up period ranged from 0.8 to 15.1 years, with a mean of 8 years. Eleven patients (50%) were conservatively treated. Among the 11 patients who were surgically treated, STA—MCA bypass was performed in six patients (27%) and encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) in the other five patients (23%). Nine patients (41%) presented with an ischemic or rebleeding event during the follow-up period. The incidence of future stroke events in patients who had undergone an STA—MCA bypass was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that in patients who had been treated conservatively or with EDAS. Kaplan—Meier plots comparing stroke-free times in patients treated with direct bypass and those in patients who conservatively or with indirect bypass showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) in favor of direct bypass.

Conclusions. The effect of STA—MCA bypass on the prevention of recurrent hemorrhage or an ischemic event in patients with hemorrhagic moyamoya disease has been statistically confirmed in this study.

Article Information

Address reprint requests to: Shoichiro Kawaguchi, M.D., Department of Neurosurgery, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara-city, Nara, 634–8522, Japan. email: skawaguc@nmu-gw.naramed-u.ac.jp.

© AANS, except where prohibited by US copyright law.

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    Graph showing Kaplan—Meier plot of the percentages of patients who remained stroke-free over time in populations treated with conservative management, STA—MCA bypass, or EDAS (p < 0.05).

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