Central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors of infancy and childhood: definition of an entity

View More View Less
Restricted access

Purchase Now

USD  $45.00

JNS + Pediatrics - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $505.00

JNS + Pediatrics + Spine - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $600.00
Print or Print + Online

✓ Clinical and pathological features of 52 infants and children with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATT/RhT) of the central nervous system are defined. This tumor is typically misdiagnosed as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) primarily because 70% of ATT/RhTs contain fields indistinguishable from classic PNETs. Separation of these two tumor types is crucial because the prognosis for ATT/RhT is grim even when treatment includes surgery with or without radio- and/or chemotherapy.

These tumors are most common in infants less than 2 years of age. The cases described in this study arose intracranially in all but one instance, although one-third had already spread throughout the subarachnoid space at presentation. Clinical signs and symptoms and radiological features do not distinguish ATT/RhTs from PNETs. The tumors are composed entirely (13%) or partly (77%) of rhabdoid cells. Seventy percent contain fields of typical PNET alone or in combination with mesenchymal and/or epithelial elements. The immunohistochemical profile is unique: epithelial membrane antigen, vimentin, and smooth-muscle actin are positive in the majority of tumors and markers for germ-cell tumors are consistently negative.

Abnormalities of chromosome 22 distinguish ATT/RhTs from PNETs, which typically display an i(17q) abnormality.

JNS + Pediatrics - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $505.00

JNS + Pediatrics + Spine - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $600.00

Contributor Notes

Address reprint requests to: Lucy Balian Rorke, M.D., Department of Pathological Anatomy, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 324 South 34th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104–4399.
  • 1.

    Agranovich AL, , Ang LC, & Griebel RW, et al: Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system with subarachnoid dissemination. Surg Neurol 37:410414, 1991 Agranovich AL, Ang LC, Griebel RW, et al: Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system with subarachnoid dissemination. Surg Neurol 37:410–414, 1991

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Biegel JA, , Burk CD, & Parmiter AH, et al: Molecular analysis of a partial deletion of 22q in a central nervous system rhabdoid tumor. Genes Chromosom Cancer 5:104108, 1992 Biegel JA, Burk CD, Parmiter AH, et al: Molecular analysis of a partial deletion of 22q in a central nervous system rhabdoid tumor. Genes Chromosom Cancer 5:104–108, 1992

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Biegel JA, , Rorke LB, & Emanuel BS: Monosomy 22 in rhabdoid or atypical teratoid tumors of the brain. New Engl J Med 321:906, 1989 (Letter) Biegel JA, Rorke LB, Emanuel BS: Monosomy 22 in rhabdoid or atypical teratoid tumors of the brain. New Engl J Med 321:906, 1989 (Letter)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Biegel JA, , Rorke LB, & Janss AJ, et al: Isochromosome 17q demonstrated by interphase FISH in primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system. Genes Chromosom Cancer 14:8596, 1995 Biegel JA, Rorke LB, Janss AJ, et al: Isochromosome 17q demonstrated by interphase FISH in primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system. Genes Chromosom Cancer 14:85–96, 1995

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Biegel JA, , Rorke LB, & Packer RJ, et al: Monosomy 22 in rhabdoid or atypical tumors of the brain. J Neurosurg 73:710714, 1990 Biegel JA, Rorke LB, Packer RJ, et al: Monosomy 22 in rhabdoid or atypical tumors of the brain. J Neurosurg 73:710–714, 1990

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Biggs PJ, , Garen PD, & Powers JM, et al: Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system. Hum Pathol 18:332337, 1987 Biggs PJ, Garen PD, Powers JM, et al: Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system. Hum Pathol 18:332–337, 1987

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Bonnin JM, , Rubinstein LJ, & Palmer NF, et al: The association of embryonal tumors originating in the kidney and in the brain. A report of seven cases. Cancer 54:21372146, 1984 Bonnin JM, Rubinstein LJ, Palmer NF, et al: The association of embryonal tumors originating in the kidney and in the brain. A report of seven cases. Cancer 54:2137–2146, 1984

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Briner J, , Bannwart F, & Kleihues P, et al: Malignant small cell tumor of the brain with intermediate filaments—a case of a primary cerebral rhabdoid tumor. Pediatr Pathol 3:117118, 1985 (abstract) Briner J, Bannwart F, Kleihues P, et al: Malignant small cell tumor of the brain with intermediate filaments—a case of a primary cerebral rhabdoid tumor. Pediatr Pathol 3:117–118, 1985 (abstract)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Chang CH, , Ramirez N, & Sakr WA: Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the brain associated with malignant rhabdoid tumor of the liver: a histologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic study. Pediatr Pathol 9:307319, 1989 Chang CH, Ramirez N, Sakr WA: Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the brain associated with malignant rhabdoid tumor of the liver: a histologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic study. Pediatr Pathol 9:307–319, 1989

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Chou SM, & Anderson JS: Primary CNS malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT): report of two cases and review of literature. Clin Neuropathol 10:110, 1993 Chou SM, Anderson JS: Primary CNS malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT): report of two cases and review of literature. Clin Neuropathol 10:1–10, 1993

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Cossu A, , Massarelli G, & Manetto V, et al: Rhabdoid tumours of the central nervous system. Report of three cases with immunocytochemical and ultrastructural findings. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol 422:8185, 1993 Cossu A, Massarelli G, Manetto V, et al: Rhabdoid tumours of the central nervous system. Report of three cases with immunocytochemical and ultrastructural findings. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol 422:81–85, 1993

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    De Chadarévian JP, , Vekemans M, & Bernstein M: Fanconi's anemia, medulloblastoma, Wilms' tumor, horseshoe kidney, and gonadal dysgenesis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 109:367369, 1985 De Chadarévian JP, Vekemans M, Bernstein M: Fanconi's anemia, medulloblastoma, Wilms' tumor, horseshoe kidney, and gonadal dysgenesis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 109:367–369, 1985

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Douglass EC, , Valentine M, & Rowe ST, et al: Malignant rhabdoid tumor: a highly malignant childhood tumor with minimal karyotypic changes. Genes Chromosom Cancer 2:210216, 1990 Douglass EC, Valentine M, Rowe ST, et al: Malignant rhabdoid tumor: a highly malignant childhood tumor with minimal karyotypic changes. Genes Chromosom Cancer 2:210–216, 1990

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Ehret M, , Jacobi G, & Hey A, et al: Embryonal brain neoplasm in the neonatal period and early infancy. Clin Neuropathol 6:218223, 1987 Ehret M, Jacobi G, Hey A, et al: Embryonal brain neoplasm in the neonatal period and early infancy. Clin Neuropathol 6:218–223, 1987

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Fort DW, , Tonk VS, & Tomlinson GE, et al: Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney with primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the central nervous system: associated tumors with different histologic, cytogenetic and molecular findings. Genes Chromosom Cancer 11:146152, 1994 Fort DW, Tonk VS, Tomlinson GE, et al: Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney with primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the central nervous system: associated tumors with different histologic, cytogenetic and molecular findings. Genes Chromosom Cancer 11:146–152, 1994

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Frierson HF Jr, , Mills SE, & Innes DJ Jr: Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the pelvis. Cancer 55:19631967, 1985 Frierson HF Jr, Mills SE, Innes DJ Jr: Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the pelvis. Cancer 55:1963–1967, 1985

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Gansler T, , Gerald W, & Anderson G, et al: Characterization of a cell line derived from rhabdoid tumor of kidney. Hum Pathol 22:259266, 1991 Gansler T, Gerald W, Anderson G, et al: Characterization of a cell line derived from rhabdoid tumor of kidney. Hum Pathol 22:259–266, 1991

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Ghadially FN: Ultrastructural Pathology of the Cell and Matrix: A Text and Atlas of Physiological and Pathological Alterations in the Fine Structure of Cellular and Extracellular Components, ed 2. London: Butterworths, 1982 Ghadially FN: Ultrastructural Pathology of the Cell and Matrix: A Text and Atlas of Physiological and Pathological Alterations in the Fine Structure of Cellular and Extracellular Components, ed 2. London: Butterworths, 1982

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Gonzalez-Crussi F, , Goldschmidt RA, & Hseuh W, et al: Infantile sarcoma with intracytoplasmic filamentous inclusions. Distinctive tumor of possible histiocytic origin. Cancer 49:23652375, 1982 Gonzalez-Crussi F, Goldschmidt RA, Hseuh W, et al: Infantile sarcoma with intracytoplasmic filamentous inclusions. Distinctive tumor of possible histiocytic origin. Cancer 49:2365–2375, 1982

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Griffin CA, , Hawkins AL, & Packer RJ, et al: Chromosome abnormalities in pediatric brain tumors. Cancer Res 48:175180, 1988 Griffin CA, Hawkins AL, Packer RJ, et al: Chromosome abnormalities in pediatric brain tumors. Cancer Res 48:175–180, 1988

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Hanna SL, , Langston JW, & Parham DM, et al: Primary malignant rhabdoid tumor of the brain: clinical, imaging, and pathologic findings. AJNR 14:107115, 1993 Hanna SL, Langston JW, Parham DM, et al: Primary malignant rhabdoid tumor of the brain: clinical, imaging, and pathologic findings. AJNR 14:107–115, 1993

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Ho PSP, , Lee WH, & Chen CY, et al: Primary malignant rhabdoid tumor of the brain: CT characteristics. J Comput Assist Tomogr 14:461463, 1990 Ho PSP, Lee WH, Chen CY, et al: Primary malignant rhabdoid tumor of the brain: CT characteristics. J Comput Assist Tomogr 14:461–463, 1990

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Howat AJ, , Gonzalez MF, & Waters KD, et al: Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the central nervous system associated with malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney: report of a case. Histopathology 19:643650, 1986 Howat AJ, Gonzalez MF, Waters KD, et al: Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the central nervous system associated with malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney: report of a case. Histopathology 19:643–650, 1986

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Jakate SM, , Marsden HB, & Ingram L: Primary rhabdoid tumour of the brain. Virchows Arch Pathol Anat Histopathol 412:393397, 1988 Jakate SM, Marsden HB, Ingram L: Primary rhabdoid tumour of the brain. Virchows Arch Pathol Anat Histopathol 412:393–397, 1988

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Kapur S, , Patterson K, & Chandra R: Primary rhabdoid tumor of the cerebellum. Pediatr Pathol 5:101, 1986 (Abstract) Kapur S, Patterson K, Chandra R: Primary rhabdoid tumor of the cerebellum. Pediatr Pathol 5:101, 1986 (Abstract)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Karnes PS, , Tran TN, & Cui MY, et al: Cytogenetic analysis of 39 pediatric central nervous system tumors. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 5:912919, 1992 Karnes PS, Tran TN, Cui MY, et al: Cytogenetic analysis of 39 pediatric central nervous system tumors. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 5:912–919, 1992

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Kepes JJ, & Moral LA: Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT-S) of the central nervous system (CNS) and their morphological features seen in other CNS neoplasms. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 50:362, 1991 (Abstract) Kepes JJ, Moral LA: Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT-S) of the central nervous system (CNS) and their morphological features seen in other CNS neoplasms. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 50:362, 1991 (Abstract)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Kodet R, , Newton WA Jr, & Sachs N, et al: Rhabdoid tumors of soft tissues: a clinicopathologic study of 26 cases enrolled in the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma study. Hum Pathol 22:674684, 1991 Kodet R, Newton WA Jr, Sachs N, et al: Rhabdoid tumors of soft tissues: a clinicopathologic study of 26 cases enrolled in the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma study. Hum Pathol 22:674–684, 1991

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Lefkowitz IB, , Rorke LB, & Packer RJ, et al: Atypical teratoid tumor of infancy: definition of an entity. Ann Neurol 22:448449, 1987 (Abstract) Lefkowitz IB, Rorke LB, Packer RJ, et al: Atypical teratoid tumor of infancy: definition of an entity. Ann Neurol 22:448–449, 1987 (Abstract)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Manhoff DT, , Rorke LB, & Yachnis AT: Primary intracranial atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in a child with Canavan disease. Pediatr Neurosurg 22:214222, 1995 Manhoff DT, Rorke LB, Yachnis AT: Primary intracranial atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in a child with Canavan disease. Pediatr Neurosurg 22:214–222, 1995

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Misugi K, , Yagashita S, & Koyama S, et al: An infant with medulloblastoma and Wilms' tumor. Yokahama Med Bull 28:3943, 1977 Misugi K, Yagashita S, Koyama S, et al: An infant with medulloblastoma and Wilms' tumor. Yokahama Med Bull 28:39–43, 1977

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Muller M, , Hubbard SL, & Fukuyama K, et al: Characterization of a pineal region malignant rhabdoid tumor. Toward understanding brain tumor cell invasion. Pediatr Neurosurg 22:204209, 1995 Muller M, Hubbard SL, Fukuyama K, et al: Characterization of a pineal region malignant rhabdoid tumor. Toward understanding brain tumor cell invasion. Pediatr Neurosurg 22:204–209, 1995

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Nakagawa Y, , Perentes E, & Ross GW, et al: Immunohistochemical differences between intracranial germinomas and their gonadal equivalents. An immunoperoxidase study of germ cell tumours with epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin, and vimentin. J Pathol 156:6772, 1988 Nakagawa Y, Perentes E, Ross GW, et al: Immunohistochemical differences between intracranial germinomas and their gonadal equivalents. An immunoperoxidase study of germ cell tumours with epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin, and vimentin. J Pathol 156:67–72, 1988

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Nakazato Y, , Hirato J, & Nakanishi Y, et al: Immunohistochemical localization of five classes of intermediate filament in a benign pelvic soft tissue tumor of rhabdoid appearance. Acta Pathol Jpn 41:6572, 1991 Nakazato Y, Hirato J, Nakanishi Y, et al: Immunohistochemical localization of five classes of intermediate filament in a benign pelvic soft tissue tumor of rhabdoid appearance. Acta Pathol Jpn 41:65–72, 1991

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Ota S, , Crabbe DCG, & Tran TN, et al: Malignant rhabdoid tumor. A study with two established cell lines. Cancer 71:28622872, 1993 Ota S, Crabbe DCG, Tran TN, et al: Malignant rhabdoid tumor. A study with two established cell lines. Cancer 71:2862–2872, 1993

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Parham DM, , Weeks DA, & Beckwith JB: The clinicopathologic spectrum of putative extrarenal rhabdoid tumors. An analysis of 42 cases studied with immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy. Am J Surg Pathol 18:10101029, 1994 Parham DM, Weeks DA, Beckwith JB: The clinicopathologic spectrum of putative extrarenal rhabdoid tumors. An analysis of 42 cases studied with immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy. Am J Surg Pathol 18:1010–1029, 1994

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Perilongo G, , Sutton L, & Czaykowski D, et al: Rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system. Med Pediat Oncol 19:310317, 1991 Perilongo G, Sutton L, Czaykowski D, et al: Rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system. Med Pediat Oncol 19:310–317, 1991

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Roggendorf W: Primitive neuroectodermal tumor with focal rhabdoid component: a case report. Clin Neuropathol 10:106, 1991 (Abstract) Roggendorf W: Primitive neuroectodermal tumor with focal rhabdoid component: a case report. Clin Neuropathol 10:106, 1991 (Abstract)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Rorke LB: The cerebellar medulloblastoma and its relationship to primitive neuroectodermal tumors. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 42:115, 1983 Rorke LB: The cerebellar medulloblastoma and its relationship to primitive neuroectodermal tumors. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 42:1–15, 1983

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Rorke LB, , Packer R, & Biegel J: Central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors of infancy and childhood. J Neurooncol 24:2128, 1995 Rorke LB, Packer R, Biegel J: Central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors of infancy and childhood. J Neurooncol 24:21–28, 1995

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Rorke LB, , Packer RJ, & Schut L, et al: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and the so-called ‘large cell medulloblastoma.’ Pediatr Neurosurg 19:287, 1993 (Abstract) Rorke LB, Packer RJ, Schut L, et al: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and the so-called ‘large cell medulloblastoma.’ Pediatr Neurosurg 19:287, 1993 (Abstract)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Schmidt D, , Leuschner I, & Harms D, et al: Malignant rhabdoid tumor. A morphological and flow cytometric study. Pathol Res Pract 184:202210, 1989 Schmidt D, Leuschner I, Harms D, et al: Malignant rhabdoid tumor. A morphological and flow cytometric study. Pathol Res Pract 184:202–210, 1989

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Shi SR, , Key ME, & Kalra KL: Antigen retrieval in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues: an enhancement method for immunohistochemical staining based on microwave oven heating of tissue sections. J Histochem Cytochem 39:741748, 1991 Shi SR, Key ME, Kalra KL: Antigen retrieval in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues: an enhancement method for immunohistochemical staining based on microwave oven heating of tissue sections. J Histochem Cytochem 39:741–748, 1991

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Sotelo-Avila C, , Gonzalez-Crussi F, & deMello D, et al: Renal and extrarenal rhabdoid tumors in children: a clinicopathologic study of 14 patients. Semin Diagn Pathol 3:151163, 1986 Sotelo-Avila C, Gonzalez-Crussi F, deMello D, et al: Renal and extrarenal rhabdoid tumors in children: a clinicopathologic study of 14 patients. Semin Diagn Pathol 3:151–163, 1986

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Ushigome S, , Shimoda T, & Nikaido T, et al: Histopathologic, diagnostic and histogenetic problems in malignant soft tissue tumors. Reassessment of malignant fibrous histocytoma, epithelioid sarcoma, malignant rhabdoid tumor, and neuroectodermal tumor. Acta Pathol Jpn 42:691706, 1992 Ushigome S, Shimoda T, Nikaido T, et al: Histopathologic, diagnostic and histogenetic problems in malignant soft tissue tumors. Reassessment of malignant fibrous histocytoma, epithelioid sarcoma, malignant rhabdoid tumor, and neuroectodermal tumor. Acta Pathol Jpn 42:691–706, 1992

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Vagner-Capadano AM, , Gentet JC, & Choux M, et al: Chromosomal abnormalities in 16 pediatric brain tumors. Pediatr Neurosci 14:159, 1988 (Abstract) Vagner-Capadano AM, Gentet JC, Choux M, et al: Chromosomal abnormalities in 16 pediatric brain tumors. Pediatr Neurosci 14:159, 1988 (Abstract)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Velasco ME, , Brown JA, & Kini J, et al: Primary congenital rhabdoid tumor of the brain with neoplastic hydranencephaly. Childs Nerv Syst 9:185190, 1993 Velasco ME, Brown JA, Kini J, et al: Primary congenital rhabdoid tumor of the brain with neoplastic hydranencephaly. Childs Nerv Syst 9:185–190, 1993

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Weeks DA, , Beckwith JB, & Mierau GW, et al: Rhabdoid tumor of kidney. A report of 111 cases from the National Wilms' Tumor Study Pathology Center. Am J Surg Pathol 13:439458, 1989 Weeks DA, Beckwith JB, Mierau GW, et al: Rhabdoid tumor of kidney. A report of 111 cases from the National Wilms' Tumor Study Pathology Center. Am J Surg Pathol 13:439–458, 1989

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Weeks DA, , Malott RL, & Zuppan CW, et al: Primitive cerebral tumor with rhabdoid features: a case of phenotypic rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system. Ultrastruct Pathol 18:2328, 1994 Weeks DA, Malott RL, Zuppan CW, et al: Primitive cerebral tumor with rhabdoid features: a case of phenotypic rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system. Ultrastruct Pathol 18:23–28, 1994

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Wilson D, , Dempsey RJ, & John WJ: Rhabdoid tumor of the conus medullaris. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 49:339, 1990 (Abstract) Wilson D, Dempsey RJ, John WJ: Rhabdoid tumor of the conus medullaris. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 49:339, 1990 (Abstract)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Yachnis AT, & Trojanowski JQ: Studies of childhood brain tumors using immunohistochemistry and microwave technology: methodological considerations. J Neurosci Methods 55:191200, 1994 Yachnis AT, Trojanowski JQ: Studies of childhood brain tumors using immunohistochemistry and microwave technology: methodological considerations. J Neurosci Methods 55:191–200, 1994

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1004 566 22
Full Text Views 442 96 7
PDF Downloads 213 57 5
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0