The pineal gland: anatomy, physiology, and clinical significance

Restricted access

✓ Since the discovery of melatonin approximately 25 years ago, there has been intense study regarding the details of the structure and function of the pineal gland. This work is reviewed, with particular emphasis on those aspects of importance to human physiology and disease.

Article Information

Dr. Erlich is a recipient of Teacher-Investigator Development Award 5K07 NS00789 from the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, and a grant from the Keck Foundation.

Address reprint requests to: Stephanie S. Erlich, M.D., Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90033.

© AANS, except where prohibited by US copyright law.

Headings

Figures

  • View in gallery

    Neural innervation of the mammalian pineal gland. RHT = retinohypothalamic tract; SCN = suprachiasmatic nuclei; MFB = medial forebrain bundle; SCG = superior cervical ganglia.

  • View in gallery

    Photomicrograph of pineal gland from an adult C57BL/6J mouse. Note the uniformity of the main pineal parenchymal cells, the pinealocytes. Semi-thin section. Toluidine blue, × 110.

  • View in gallery

    Ultrastructure of a pineal gland from an adult C57BL/6J mouse. Various organelles and inclusions are present, including clear (small arrow) and dense-core (large arrow) vesicles, a myeloid body (arrowhead), and lipid (L). Lead citrate and uranyl acetate, × 17,700.

  • View in gallery

    Stages of melatonin synthesis. ATP = adenosine triphosphate; cAMP = cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate.

  • View in gallery

    Photomicrograph of the adult human pineal gland. The suprapineal recess contains choroid plexus (arrow) and the parenchyma shows a faintly lobular pattern and a large glial cyst. H & E, × 16.

References

1.

Adachi MVolk BWSchneck Let al: Ultrastructural alterations of endocrine glands in Tay-Sachs disease. Am J Clin Pathol 57:5575611972Adachi M Volk BW Schneck L et al: Ultrastructural alterations of endocrine glands in Tay-Sachs disease. Am J Clin Pathol 57:557–561 1972

2.

Ahmed SRShalet SMPrice DAet al: Human chorionic gonadotrophin secreting pineal germinoma and precocious puberty. Arch Dis Child 58:7437451983Ahmed SR Shalet SM Price DA et al: Human chorionic gonadotrophin secreting pineal germinoma and precocious puberty. Arch Dis Child 58:743–745 1983

3.

Akerstedt TGillberg MWetterberg L: The circadian covariation of fatigue and urinary melatonin. Biol Psychiatry 17:5475541982Akerstedt T Gillberg M Wetterberg L: The circadian covariation of fatigue and urinary melatonin. Biol Psychiatry 17:547–554 1982

4.

Al Zubaidy AJMalinowski W: Spontaneous pineal body tumours (pinealomas) in Wistar rats; a histological and ultrastructural study. Lab Anim 18:2242291984Al Zubaidy AJ Malinowski W: Spontaneous pineal body tumours (pinealomas) in Wistar rats; a histological and ultrastructural study. Lab Anim 18:224–229 1984

5.

Antón-Tay F: Melatonin: effects on brain function. Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol 11:3153241974Antón-Tay F: Melatonin: effects on brain function. Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol 11:315–324 1974

6.

Antón-Tay FChou CAnton Set al: Brain serotonin concentration: elevation following intraperitoneal administration of melatonin. Science 162:2772781968Antón-Tay F Chou C Anton S et al: Brain serotonin concentration: elevation following intraperitoneal administration of melatonin. Science 162:277–278 1968

7.

Antón-Tay FDíaz JLFernández-Guardiola A: On the effect of melatonin upon human brain. Its possible therapeutic implications. Life Sci 10:8418501971Antón-Tay F Díaz JL Fernández-Guardiola A: On the effect of melatonin upon human brain. Its possible therapeutic implications. Life Sci 10:841–850 1971

8.

Apuzzo MLJDavey LMManuelidis EE: Pineal apoplexy associated with anticoagulant therapy. Case report. J Neurosurg 45:2232261976Apuzzo MLJ Davey LM Manuelidis EE: Pineal apoplexy associated with anticoagulant therapy. Case report. J Neurosurg 45:223–226 1976

9.

Arendt JWetterberg LHeyden Tet al: Radioimmunoassay of melatonin: human serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Horm Res 8:65751977Arendt J Wetterberg L Heyden T et al: Radioimmunoassay of melatonin: human serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Horm Res 8:65–75 1977

10.

Arendt JWirz-Justice ABradtke J: Annual rhythm of serum melatonin in man. Neurosci Lett 7:3273301977Arendt J Wirz-Justice A Bradtke J: Annual rhythm of serum melatonin in man. Neurosci Lett 7:327–330 1977

11.

Attanasio ABorrelli PMarini Ret al: Serum melatonin in children with early and delayed puberty. Neuroendocrinol Lett 5:3873921983Attanasio A Borrelli P Marini R et al: Serum melatonin in children with early and delayed puberty. Neuroendocrinol Lett 5:387–392 1983

12.

Axelrod J: The pineal gland: a neurochemical transducer. Chemical signals from nerves regulate synthesis of melatonin and convey information about internal clocks. Science 184:134113481974Axelrod J: The pineal gland: a neurochemical transducer. Chemical signals from nerves regulate synthesis of melatonin and convey information about internal clocks. Science 184:1341–1348 1974

13.

Barchas JDaCosta FSpector S: Acute pharmacology of melatonin. Nature 214:9199201967Barchas J DaCosta F Spector S: Acute pharmacology of melatonin. Nature 214:919–920 1967

14.

Barchas JLerner AB: Localization of melatonin in the nervous system. J Neurochem 11:4894911964Barchas J Lerner AB: Localization of melatonin in the nervous system. J Neurochem 11:489–491 1964

15.

Bartsch CBartsch HFluchter SHet al: Circadian rhythms of serum melatonin, prolactin and growth hormone in patients with benign and malignant tumours of the prostate and in non-tumour controls. Neuroendocrinol Lett 5:3773861983Bartsch C Bartsch H Fluchter SH et al: Circadian rhythms of serum melatonin prolactin and growth hormone in patients with benign and malignant tumours of the prostate and in non-tumour controls. Neuroendocrinol Lett 5:377–386 1983

16.

Bartsch CBartsch HJain AKet al: Urinary melatonin levels in human breast cancer patients. J Neural Transm 52:2812941981Bartsch C Bartsch H Jain AK et al: Urinary melatonin levels in human breast cancer patients. J Neural Transm 52:281–294 1981

17.

Bartsch HBartsch C: Effect of melatonin on experimental tumors under different photoperiods and times of administration. J Neural Transm 52:2692791981Bartsch H Bartsch C: Effect of melatonin on experimental tumors under different photoperiods and times of administration. J Neural Transm 52:269–279 1981

18.

Beck OBorg SLundman A: Concentration of 5-meth-oxyindoles in the human pineal gland. J Neural Transm 54:1111161982Beck O Borg S Lundman A: Concentration of 5-meth-oxyindoles in the human pineal gland. J Neural Transm 54:111–116 1982

19.

Beckmann HWetterberg LGattaz WF: Melatonin immunoreactivity in cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenic patients and healthy controls. Psychiatry Res 11:1071101984Beckmann H Wetterberg L Gattaz WF: Melatonin immunoreactivity in cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenic patients and healthy controls. Psychiatry Res 11:107–110 1984

20.

Binkley S: Circadian rhythms of pineal function in rats. Endocr Rev 4:2552701983Binkley S: Circadian rhythms of pineal function in rats. Endocr Rev 4:255–270 1983

21.

Binkley S: Rhythms in ocular and pineal N-acetyltransferase: a portrait of an enzyme clock. Comp Biochem Physiol (A) 75:1231291983Binkley S: Rhythms in ocular and pineal N-acetyltransferase: a portrait of an enzyme clock. Comp Biochem Physiol (A) 75:123–129 1983

22.

Birau NPavel SMeyer Cet al: Melatonin serum concentration in the waking state of narcoleptics. IRCS Med Sci (Biochem) 10:1991982Birau N Pavel S Meyer C et al: Melatonin serum concentration in the waking state of narcoleptics. IRCS Med Sci (Biochem) 10:199 1982

23.

Birkeland AJ: Plasma melatonin levels and nocturnal transitions between sleep and wakefulness. Neuroendocrinology 34:1261311982Birkeland AJ: Plasma melatonin levels and nocturnal transitions between sleep and wakefulness. Neuroendocrinology 34:126–131 1982

24.

Blask DE: Potential sites of action of pineal hormones within the neuroendocrine-reproductive axis in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press1981 Vol 2 pp 189216Blask DE: Potential sites of action of pineal hormones within the neuroendocrine-reproductive axis in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton Fla: CRC Press 1981 Vol 2 pp 189–216

25.

Blask DEVaughan MKReiter RJ: Pineal peptides and reproduction in Relkin R (ed): The Pineal Gland. New York: Elsevier1983 pp 201224Blask DE Vaughan MK Reiter RJ: Pineal peptides and reproduction in Relkin R (ed): The Pineal Gland. New York: Elsevier 1983 pp 201–224

26.

Brainard GCRichardson BAKing TSet al: The influence of different light spectra on the suppression of pineal melatonin content in the Syrian hamster. Brain Res 294:3333391984Brainard GC Richardson BA King TS et al: The influence of different light spectra on the suppression of pineal melatonin content in the Syrian hamster. Brain Res 294:333–339 1984

27.

Brimijoin S: Microtubules and the capacity of the system for rapid axonal transport. Fed Proc 41:231223161982Brimijoin S: Microtubules and the capacity of the system for rapid axonal transport. Fed Proc 41:2312–2316 1982

28.

Bruyn GW: The seat of the soul in Rose FCBynum WF (eds): Historical Aspects of the Neurosciences. New York: Raven Press1982 pp 5581Bruyn GW: The seat of the soul in Rose FC Bynum WF (eds): Historical Aspects of the Neurosciences. New York: Raven Press 1982 pp 55–81

29.

Calvo JBoya J: Postnatal evolution of the rat pineal gland: light microscopy. J Anat 138:45531984Calvo J Boya J: Postnatal evolution of the rat pineal gland: light microscopy. J Anat 138:45–53 1984

30.

Cardinali DP: Melatonin. A mammalian pineal hormone. Endocr Rev 2:3273461981Cardinali DP: Melatonin. A mammalian pineal hormone. Endocr Rev 2:327–346 1981

31.

Cardinali DP: Molecular biology of melatonin: assessment of the “microtubule hypothesis of melatonin action,” in Birau NSchloot W (eds): Melatonin: Current Status and Perspectives. New York: Pergamon Press1981 pp 247256Cardinali DP: Molecular biology of melatonin: assessment of the “microtubule hypothesis of melatonin action” in Birau N Schloot W (eds): Melatonin: Current Status and Perspectives. New York: Pergamon Press 1981 pp 247–256

32.

Cardinali DPFreire F: Melatonin effects on brain. Interaction with microtubule protein, inhibition of fast axoplasmic flow and induction of crystaloid and tubular formations in the hypothalamus. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2:3173301975Cardinali DP Freire F: Melatonin effects on brain. Interaction with microtubule protein inhibition of fast axoplasmic flow and induction of crystaloid and tubular formations in the hypothalamus. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2:317–330 1975

33.

Cardinali DPHyyppä MTWurtman RJ: Fate of intracisternally injected melatonin in the rat brain. Neuroendocrinology 12:30401973Cardinali DP Hyyppä MT Wurtman RJ: Fate of intracisternally injected melatonin in the rat brain. Neuroendocrinology 12:30–40 1973

34.

Cardinali DPLynch HJWurtman RJ: Binding of melatonin to human and rat plasma proteins. Endocrinology 91:121312181972Cardinali DP Lynch HJ Wurtman RJ: Binding of melatonin to human and rat plasma proteins. Endocrinology 91:1213–1218 1972

35.

Cardinali DPNagle CARosner JM: Uptake and effects of melatonin on the synthesis of proteins by the rat cerebral cortex. Life Sci 13:8238331973Cardinali DP Nagle CA Rosner JM: Uptake and effects of melatonin on the synthesis of proteins by the rat cerebral cortex. Life Sci 13:823–833 1973

36.

Cardinali DPVacas MI: Molecular endocrinology of melatonin: receptor sites in brain and peripheral organs in Birau NSchloot W (eds): Melatonin: Current Status and Perspectives. New York: Pergamon Press1981 pp 237246Cardinali DP Vacas MI: Molecular endocrinology of melatonin: receptor sites in brain and peripheral organs in Birau N Schloot W (eds): Melatonin: Current Status and Perspectives. New York: Pergamon Press 1981 pp 237–246

37.

Cardinali DPVacas MIGejman PVet al: The sympathetic superior cervical ganglia as “little neuroendocrine brains.” Acta Physiol Lat Am 33:2052211983Cardinali DP Vacas MI Gejman PV et al: The sympathetic superior cervical ganglia as “little neuroendocrine brains.” Acta Physiol Lat Am 33:205–221 1983

38.

Carr DBReppert SMBullen Bet al: Plasma melatonin increases during exercise in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 53:2242251981Carr DB Reppert SM Bullen B et al: Plasma melatonin increases during exercise in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 53:224–225 1981

39.

Cohen MRoselle DChabner Bet al: Evidence for a cytoplasmic melatonin receptor. Nature 274:8948951978Cohen M Roselle D Chabner B et al: Evidence for a cytoplasmic melatonin receptor. Nature 274:894–895 1978

40.

Cotzias GCTang LCMiller STet al: Melatonin and abnormal movements induced by L-dopa in mice. Science 173:4504521971Cotzias GC Tang LC Miller ST et al: Melatonin and abnormal movements induced by L-dopa in mice. Science 173:450–452 1971

41.

Cremer-Bartels GEbels ISykes JEet al: Effects of retinal pineal low molecular weight fractions and antipsychotic drugs on hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase. J Neural Transm 58:1071191983Cremer-Bartels G Ebels I Sykes JE et al: Effects of retinal pineal low molecular weight fractions and antipsychotic drugs on hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase. J Neural Transm 58:107–119 1983

42.

Cunnane SCManku MSOka Met al: Enhanced vascular reactivity to various vasoconstrictor agents following pinealectomy in the rat: role of melatonin. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 58:2872931980Cunnane SC Manku MS Oka M et al: Enhanced vascular reactivity to various vasoconstrictor agents following pinealectomy in the rat: role of melatonin. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 58:287–293 1980

43.

Daan SLewy AJ: Scheduled exposure to daylight; a potential strategy to reduce “jet lag” following transmeridian flight. Psychopharmacol Bull 20:5665681984Daan S Lewy AJ: Scheduled exposure to daylight; a potential strategy to reduce “jet lag” following transmeridian flight. Psychopharmacol Bull 20:566–568 1984

44.

Datta PCKing MG: Melatonin: effects on brain and behavior. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 4:4514581980Datta PC King MG: Melatonin: effects on brain and behavior. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 4:451–458 1980

45.

Ehrenkranz JRLTamarkin LComite Fet al: Daily rhythm of plasma melatonin in normal and precocious puberty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 55:3073101982Ehrenkranz JRL Tamarkin L Comite F et al: Daily rhythm of plasma melatonin in normal and precocious puberty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 55:307–310 1982

46.

El-Domeiri AAdas Gupta TK: The influence of pineal ablation and administration of melatonin on growth and spread of hamster melanoma. J Surg Oncol 8:1972051976El-Domeiri AA das Gupta TK: The influence of pineal ablation and administration of melatonin on growth and spread of hamster melanoma. J Surg Oncol 8:197–205 1976

47.

Erlich SSWeiner LPWeiss MHet al: Time course of intravenously administered 3H-melatonin in mouse sciatic nerve and spinal cord. Soc Neurosci Abstr 10:8211984 (Abstract)Erlich SS Weiner LP Weiss MH et al: Time course of intravenously administered 3H-melatonin in mouse sciatic nerve and spinal cord. Soc Neurosci Abstr 10:821 1984 (Abstract)

48.

Fariello RGBubenik GABrown GMet al: Epileptogenic action of intraventricularly injected antimelatonin antibody. Neurology 27:5675701977Fariello RG Bubenik GA Brown GM et al: Epileptogenic action of intraventricularly injected antimelatonin antibody. Neurology 27:567–570 1977

49.

Ferrier INArendt JJohnstone ECet al: Reduced nocturnal melatonin secretion in chronic schizophrenia: relationship to body weight. Clin Endocrinol 17:1811871982Ferrier IN Arendt J Johnstone EC et al: Reduced nocturnal melatonin secretion in chronic schizophrenia: relationship to body weight. Clin Endocrinol 17:181–187 1982

50.

Fevre MBoyar RMRollag MD: Dosage radioimmunologique de la mélatonine au cours du nycthemère chez le garçon pubère. Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 40:5555561979Fevre M Boyar RM Rollag MD: Dosage radioimmunologique de la mélatonine au cours du nycthemère chez le garçon pubère. Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 40:555–556 1979

51.

Fevre-Montange MEstour BAbou-Samra ABet al: Twenty-four hour melatonin secretory pattern in men with idiopathic hemochromatosis. Psychoneuroendocrinology 8:3213261983Fevre-Montange M Estour B Abou-Samra AB et al: Twenty-four hour melatonin secretory pattern in men with idiopathic hemochromatosis. Psychoneuroendocrinology 8:321–326 1983

52.

Févre-Montange MVan Cauter ERefetoff Set al: Effects of “jet lag” on hormonal patterns. II. Adaptation of melatonin circadian periodicity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 52:6426491981Févre-Montange M Van Cauter E Refetoff S et al: Effects of “jet lag” on hormonal patterns. II. Adaptation of melatonin circadian periodicity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 52:642–649 1981

53.

Fiske VMHuppert LC: Melatonin action on pineal varies with photoperiod. Science 162:2791968Fiske VM Huppert LC: Melatonin action on pineal varies with photoperiod. Science 162:279 1968

54.

Fitzgerald TJVeal A: Melatonin antagonizes colchicine-induced mitotic arrest. Experientia 32:3723731976Fitzgerald TJ Veal A: Melatonin antagonizes colchicine-induced mitotic arrest. Experientia 32:372–373 1976

55.

Freire FCardinali DP: Effects of melatonin treatment and environmental lighting on the ultrastructural appearance, melatonin synthesis, norepinephrine turnover and microtubule protein content of the rat pineal gland. J Neural Transm 37:2372571975Freire F Cardinali DP: Effects of melatonin treatment and environmental lighting on the ultrastructural appearance melatonin synthesis norepinephrine turnover and microtubule protein content of the rat pineal gland. J Neural Transm 37:237–257 1975

56.

Friedman EYocca FDCooper TB: Antidepressant drugs with varying pharmacological profiles alter rat pineal beta adrenergic-mediated function. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 228:5455501984Friedman E Yocca FD Cooper TB: Antidepressant drugs with varying pharmacological profiles alter rat pineal beta adrenergic-mediated function. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 228:545–550 1984

57.

Gauquelin GGeelen GAllevard-Burguburu AMet al: Presence of neurophysins I and II in the human pineal gland: comparison with the content of neurohypophyseal hormones. Peptides 3:8058091982Gauquelin G Geelen G Allevard-Burguburu AM et al: Presence of neurophysins I and II in the human pineal gland: comparison with the content of neurohypophyseal hormones. Peptides 3:805–809 1982

58.

Gern WAGorell TAOwens DW: Melatonin and pigment cell rhythmicity in Birau NSchloot W (eds): Melatonin: Current Status and Perspectives. New York: Pergamon Press1981 pp 223233Gern WA Gorell TA Owens DW: Melatonin and pigment cell rhythmicity in Birau N Schloot W (eds): Melatonin: Current Status and Perspectives. New York: Pergamon Press 1981 pp 223–233

59.

Gibbs FPVriend J: The half-life of melatonin elimination from rat plasma. Endocrinology 109:179617981981Gibbs FP Vriend J: The half-life of melatonin elimination from rat plasma. Endocrinology 109:1796–1798 1981

60.

Goldman BDDarrow JM: The pineal gland and mammalian photoperiodism. Neuroendocrinology 37:3863961983Goldman BD Darrow JM: The pineal gland and mammalian photoperiodism. Neuroendocrinology 37:386–396 1983

61.

Goldstein R: A GABAergic habenulo-raphe pathway mediation of the hypnogenic effects of vasotocin in cat. Neuroscience 10:9419451983Goldstein R: A GABAergic habenulo-raphe pathway mediation of the hypnogenic effects of vasotocin in cat. Neuroscience 10:941–945 1983

62.

Goldstein R: The involvement of arginine vasotocin in the maturation of the kitten brain. Peptides 5:25281984Goldstein R: The involvement of arginine vasotocin in the maturation of the kitten brain. Peptides 5:25–28 1984

63.

Green ARNutt DJCowen PJ: Using Ro 15-1788 to investigate the benzodiazepine receptor in vivo: studies on the anticonvulsant and sedative effect of melatonin and the convulsant effect of the benzodiazepine Ro 05-3663. Psychopharmacology 78:2932951982Green AR Nutt DJ Cowen PJ: Using Ro 15-1788 to investigate the benzodiazepine receptor in vivo: studies on the anticonvulsant and sedative effect of melatonin and the convulsant effect of the benzodiazepine Ro 05-3663. Psychopharmacology 78:293–295 1982

64.

Greiner ACChan SC: Melatonin content of the human pineal gland. Science 199:83841978Greiner AC Chan SC: Melatonin content of the human pineal gland. Science 199:83–84 1978

65.

Gupta DRiedel LFrick HJet al: Circulating melatonin in children: in relation to puberty, endocrine disorders, functional tests and racial origin. Neuroendocrinol Lett 5:63781983Gupta D Riedel L Frick HJ et al: Circulating melatonin in children: in relation to puberty endocrine disorders functional tests and racial origin. Neuroendocrinol Lett 5:63–78 1983

66.

Hajdu SIPorro RSLieberman PHet al: Degeneration of the pineal gland of patients with cancer. Cancer 29:7067091972Hajdu SI Porro RS Lieberman PH et al: Degeneration of the pineal gland of patients with cancer. Cancer 29:706–709 1972

67.

Harlow HJPhillips JARalph CL: Circadian rhythms and the effects of exogenous melatonin in the nine-banded armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus: a. mammal lacking a distinct pineal gland. Physiol Behav 29:3073131982Harlow HJ Phillips JA Ralph CL: Circadian rhythms and the effects of exogenous melatonin in the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus: a. mammal lacking a distinct pineal gland. Physiol Behav 29:307–313 1982

68.

Heidbüchel UVollrath L: Morphological findings relating to the problem of cortex and medulla in the pineal glands of rat and hamster. J Anat 136:7237341983Heidbüchel U Vollrath L: Morphological findings relating to the problem of cortex and medulla in the pineal glands of rat and hamster. J Anat 136:723–734 1983

69.

Heidbüchel UVollrath L: Pineal complex of rats: effects of superficial pinealectomy on the deep pineal. Acta Anat 117:1651691983Heidbüchel U Vollrath L: Pineal complex of rats: effects of superficial pinealectomy on the deep pineal. Acta Anat 117:165–169 1983

70.

Higley HRMcNulty JARowden G: Glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 protein in pineal supportive cells: an electron microscopic study. Brain Res 304:1171201984Higley HR McNulty JA Rowden G: Glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 protein in pineal supportive cells: an electron microscopic study. Brain Res 304:117–120 1984

71.

Holshuh HJHoward EB: Pineoblastoma, a primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the brain of a horse. Vet Pathol 19:5675691982Holshuh HJ Howard EB: Pineoblastoma a primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the brain of a horse. Vet Pathol 19:567–569 1982

72.

Huang SKNobiling RSchachner Met al: Interstitial and parenchymal cells in the pineal gland of the golden hamster. A combined thin-section, freeze-fracture and immunofluorescence study. Cell Tissue Res 235:3273371984Huang SK Nobiling R Schachner M et al: Interstitial and parenchymal cells in the pineal gland of the golden hamster. A combined thin-section freeze-fracture and immunofluorescence study. Cell Tissue Res 235:327–337 1984

73.

Huebner O: Tumor der Glandula pinealis. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 24:2141898Huebner O: Tumor der Glandula pinealis. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 24:214 1898

74.

Illnerová HVaněček J: Orcadian rhythm in inducibility of rat pineal N-acetyltransferase after brief light pulses at night: control by a morning oscillator. J Comp Physiol (A) 154:7397441984Illnerová H Vaněček J: Orcadian rhythm in inducibility of rat pineal N-acetyltransferase after brief light pulses at night: control by a morning oscillator. J Comp Physiol (A) 154:739–744 1984

75.

Jones TCHunt RD: Veterinary Pathologyed 5. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger1983 pp 163516361682Jones TC Hunt RD: Veterinary Pathology ed 5. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger 1983 pp 1635–1636 1682

76.

Joó IKahán A: The porphyrin content of Harderian glands in rats and the melatonin-melanocyte stimulating hormone-system. Endokrinologie 65:3083121975Joó I Kahán A: The porphyrin content of Harderian glands in rats and the melatonin-melanocyte stimulating hormone-system. Endokrinologie 65:308–312 1975

77.

Kamback DORich RARelkin R: Effect of pinealectomy on fatty acid composition of rat brain myelin. Endocrinology 110:9079091982Kamback DO Rich RA Relkin R: Effect of pinealectomy on fatty acid composition of rat brain myelin. Endocrinology 110:907–909 1982

78.

Kappers JA: The mammalian pineal gland, a survey. Acta Neurochir 34:1091491976Kappers JA: The mammalian pineal gland a survey. Acta Neurochir 34:109–149 1976

79.

Kappers JA: A survey of advances in pineal research in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press1981 Vol 1 pp 125Kappers JA: A survey of advances in pineal research in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton Fla: CRC Press 1981 Vol 1 pp 1–25

80.

Kasting NWVeale WLCooper KE: Vasotocin protects rats against convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol. Experientia 37:100110021981Kasting NW Veale WL Cooper KE: Vasotocin protects rats against convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol. Experientia 37:1001–1002 1981

81.

Kavaliers M: Peptides, the pineal gland and thermoregulation. Prog Clin Biol Res 92:2072151982Kavaliers M: Peptides the pineal gland and thermoregulation. Prog Clin Biol Res 92:207–215 1982

82.

Kavaliers MHirst MTeskey GC: Ageing, opioid analgesia and the pineal gland. Life Sci 32:227922871983Kavaliers M Hirst M Teskey GC: Ageing opioid analgesia and the pineal gland. Life Sci 32:2279–2287 1983

83.

Kitay JIAltschule MD: The Pineal Gland. A Review of the Physiologic Literature. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press1954Kitay JI Altschule MD: The Pineal Gland. A Review of the Physiologic Literature. Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press 1954

84.

Klein DC: Melatonin and puberty. Science 224:61984 (Letter)Klein DC: Melatonin and puberty. Science 224:6 1984 (Letter)

85.

Klein DCAuerbach DANamboodiri MAAet al: Indole metabolism in the mammalian pineal gland in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press1981 Vol 1 pp 199227Klein DC Auerbach DA Namboodiri MAA et al: Indole metabolism in the mammalian pineal gland in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton Fla: CRC Press 1981 Vol 1 pp 199–227

86.

Klein DCAuerbach DAWeller JL: Seesaw signal processing in pineal cells: homologous sensitization of adrenergic stimulation of cyclic GMP accompanies homologous desensitization of β-adrenergic stimulation of cyclic AMP. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:462546291981Klein DC Auerbach DA Weller JL: Seesaw signal processing in pineal cells: homologous sensitization of adrenergic stimulation of cyclic GMP accompanies homologous desensitization of β-adrenergic stimulation of cyclic AMP. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:4625–4629 1981

87.

Klein DCNamboodiri MAAAuerbach DA: The melatonin rhythm generating system: developmental aspects. Life Sci 28:197519861981Klein DC Namboodiri MAA Auerbach DA: The melatonin rhythm generating system: developmental aspects. Life Sci 28:1975–1986 1981

88.

Kneisley LWMoskowitz MALynch HJ: Cervical spinal cord lesions disrupt the rhythm in human melatonin excretion. J Neural Transm 13 (Suppl):3113231978Kneisley LW Moskowitz MA Lynch HJ: Cervical spinal cord lesions disrupt the rhythm in human melatonin excretion. J Neural Transm 13 (Suppl):311–323 1978

89.

Kopin IJPare CMBAxelrod Jet al: The fate of melatonin in animals. J Biol Chem 236:307230751961Kopin IJ Pare CMB Axelrod J et al: The fate of melatonin in animals. J Biol Chem 236:3072–3075 1961

90.

Kopp NClaustrat BTappaz M: Evidence for the presence of melatonin in the human brain. Neurosci Lett 19:2372421980Kopp N Claustrat B Tappaz M: Evidence for the presence of melatonin in the human brain. Neurosci Lett 19:237–242 1980

91.

Kothari LSShah PNMhatre MC: Pineal ablation in varying photoperiods and the incidence of 9, 10-di-methyl-1, 2-benzanthracene induced mammary cancer in rats. Cancer Lett 22:991021984Kothari LS Shah PN Mhatre MC: Pineal ablation in varying photoperiods and the incidence of 9 10-di-methyl-1 2-benzanthracene induced mammary cancer in rats. Cancer Lett 22:99–102 1984

92.

Lapin V: Pineal influence on tumor. Prog Brain Res 52:5235331979Lapin V: Pineal influence on tumor. Prog Brain Res 52:523–533 1979

93.

Leone RMSilman RE: Melatonin can be differentially metabolized in the rat to produce N-acetylserotonin in addition to 6-hydroxy-melatonin. Endocrinology 114:182518321984Leone RM Silman RE: Melatonin can be differentially metabolized in the rat to produce N-acetylserotonin in addition to 6-hydroxy-melatonin. Endocrinology 114:1825–1832 1984

94.

Lerner ABCase JD: Melatonin. Fed Proc 19:5905921960Lerner AB Case JD: Melatonin. Fed Proc 19:590–592 1960

95.

Lerner ABCase JD: Pigment cell regulatory factors. J Invest Dermatol 32:2112211959Lerner AB Case JD: Pigment cell regulatory factors. J Invest Dermatol 32:211–221 1959

96.

Lerner ABCase JDHeinzelman RV: Structure of melatonin. J Am Chem Soc 81:608460851959 (Letter)Lerner AB Case JD Heinzelman RV: Structure of melatonin. J Am Chem Soc 81:6084–6085 1959 (Letter)

97.

Lerner ABCase JDMori Wet al: Melatonin in peripheral nerve. Nature 183:18211959Lerner AB Case JD Mori W et al: Melatonin in peripheral nerve. Nature 183:1821 1959

98.

Lerner ABCase JDTakahashi Yet al: Isolation of melatonin, the pineal gland factor that lightens melanocytes. J Am Chem Soc 80:25871958 (Letter)Lerner AB Case JD Takahashi Y et al: Isolation of melatonin the pineal gland factor that lightens melanocytes. J Am Chem Soc 80:2587 1958 (Letter)

99.

Lewy AJ: Effects of light on human melatonin production and the human circadian system. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 7:5515561983Lewy AJ: Effects of light on human melatonin production and the human circadian system. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 7:551–556 1983

100.

Lewy AJMarkey SP: Analysis of melatonin in human plasma by gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Science 201:7417431978Lewy AJ Markey SP: Analysis of melatonin in human plasma by gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Science 201:741–743 1978

101.

Lewy AJNewsome DA: Different types of melatonin circadian secretory rhythms in some blind subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 56:110311071983Lewy AJ Newsome DA: Different types of melatonin circadian secretory rhythms in some blind subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 56:1103–1107 1983

102.

Lewy AJSack RASinger CL: Assessment and treatment of chronobiologic disorders using plasma melatonin levels and bright light exposure: the clock-gate model and the phase response curve. Psychopharmacol Bull 20:5615651984Lewy AJ Sack RA Singer CL: Assessment and treatment of chronobiologic disorders using plasma melatonin levels and bright light exposure: the clock-gate model and the phase response curve. Psychopharmacol Bull 20:561–565 1984

103.

Lewy AJTetsuo MMarkey SPet al: Pinealectomy abolishes plasma melatonin in the rat. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 50:2042051980Lewy AJ Tetsuo M Markey SP et al: Pinealectomy abolishes plasma melatonin in the rat. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 50:204–205 1980

104.

Lewy AJWehr TAGoodwin FKet al: Light suppresses melatonin secretion in humans. Science 210:126712691980Lewy AJ Wehr TA Goodwin FK et al: Light suppresses melatonin secretion in humans. Science 210:1267–1269 1980

105.

Lewy AJWehr TAGoodwin FKet al: Manic-depressive patients may be supersensitive to light. Lancet 1:3833841981 (Letter)Lewy AJ Wehr TA Goodwin FK et al: Manic-depressive patients may be supersensitive to light. Lancet 1:383–384 1981 (Letter)

106.

Lowenstein PRCardinali DP: Characterization of flunitrazepam and beta-carboline high affinity binding in bovine pineal gland. Neuroendocrinology 37:1501541983Lowenstein PR Cardinali DP: Characterization of flunitrazepam and beta-carboline high affinity binding in bovine pineal gland. Neuroendocrinology 37:150–154 1983

107.

Lowenstein PRPereyra ENSolveyra CGet al: Effect of naloxone on the nocturnal rise of rat pineal melatonin content. Eur J Pharmacol 98:2612641984Lowenstein PR Pereyra EN Solveyra CG et al: Effect of naloxone on the nocturnal rise of rat pineal melatonin content. Eur J Pharmacol 98:261–264 1984

108.

Lowenthal AFlament-Durand JKarcher Det al: Glial cells identified by anti-α-albumin (anti-GFA) in human pineal gland. J Neurochem 38:8638651982Lowenthal A Flament-Durand J Karcher D et al: Glial cells identified by anti-α-albumin (anti-GFA) in human pineal gland. J Neurochem 38:863–865 1982

109.

Lydic RShoene WCCzeisler CAet al: Suprachiasmatic region of the human hypothalamus: homolog to the primate circadian pacemaker? Sleep 2:3553611980Lydic R Shoene WC Czeisler CA et al: Suprachiasmatic region of the human hypothalamus: homolog to the primate circadian pacemaker? Sleep 2:355–361 1980

110.

Lynch HJWang PWurtman RJ: Increase in rat pineal melatonin content following L-dopa administration. Life Sci 12:1451511973Lynch HJ Wang P Wurtman RJ: Increase in rat pineal melatonin content following L-dopa administration. Life Sci 12:145–151 1973

111.

Lynch HJWurtman RJMoskowitz MAet al: Daily rhythm in human urinary melatonin. Science 187:1691711975Lynch HJ Wurtman RJ Moskowitz MA et al: Daily rhythm in human urinary melatonin. Science 187:169–171 1975

112.

Marangos PJPolak JMPearse AGE: Neuron-specific enolase: a probe for neurons and neuroendocrine cells. Trends Neurosci 5:1931951982Marangos PJ Polak JM Pearse AGE: Neuron-specific enolase: a probe for neurons and neuroendocrine cells. Trends Neurosci 5:193–195 1982

113.

Marburg O: Die Klinik der Zirbeldrüsenerkrankungen. Ergeb Inn Med Kinderheilk 9:1461661912Marburg O: Die Klinik der Zirbeldrüsenerkrankungen. Ergeb Inn Med Kinderheilk 9:146–166 1912

114.

Marczynski TJYamaguchi NLing GMet al: Sleep induced by the administration of melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine) to the hypothalamus in unrestrained cats. Experientia 20:4354371964Marczynski TJ Yamaguchi N Ling GM et al: Sleep induced by the administration of melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine) to the hypothalamus in unrestrained cats. Experientia 20:435–437 1964

115.

Matthew EParfitt AGSugden Det al: Benzodiazepines: rat pinealocyte binding sites and augmentation of norepinephrine-stimulated N-acetyltransferase activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 228:4344381984Matthew E Parfitt AG Sugden D et al: Benzodiazepines: rat pinealocyte binding sites and augmentation of norepinephrine-stimulated N-acetyltransferase activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 228:434–438 1984

116.

McCord CPAllen FP: Evidences associating pineal gland function with alterations in pigmentation. J Exp Zool 23:2072241917McCord CP Allen FP: Evidences associating pineal gland function with alterations in pigmentation. J Exp Zool 23:207–224 1917

117.

Mendelson WBGillin JCDawson SDet al: Effects of melatonin and propranolol on sleep of the rat. Brain Res 201:2402441980Mendelson WB Gillin JC Dawson SD et al: Effects of melatonin and propranolol on sleep of the rat. Brain Res 201:240–244 1980

118.

Milcu SMPavel SNeacsu C: Biological and chromatographic characterization of a polypeptide with pressor and oxytocic activities isolated from bovine pineal gland. Endocrinology 72:5635661963Milcu SM Pavel S Neacsu C: Biological and chromatographic characterization of a polypeptide with pressor and oxytocic activities isolated from bovine pineal gland. Endocrinology 72:563–566 1963

119.

Miline R: The role of the pineal gland in stress. J Neural Transm 47:1912201980Miline R: The role of the pineal gland in stress. J Neural Transm 47:191–220 1980

120.

Moore RYKlein DC: Visual pathways and the central neural control of a circadian rhythm in pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity. Brain Res 71:17331974Moore RY Klein DC: Visual pathways and the central neural control of a circadian rhythm in pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity. Brain Res 71:17–33 1974

121.

Moore-Ede MCSulzman FMFuller CA: The Clocks that Time Us: Physiology of the Circadian Timing System. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press1982 pp 169174–176 293Moore-Ede MC Sulzman FM Fuller CA: The Clocks that Time Us: Physiology of the Circadian Timing System. Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press 1982 pp 169 174–176 293

122.

Morguenstern EAVacas MIKeller Sarmiento MIet al: Pineal-related changes in cyclic AMP levels of rat medial basal hypothalamus. Experientia 40:2232241984Morguenstern EA Vacas MI Keller Sarmiento MI et al: Pineal-related changes in cyclic AMP levels of rat medial basal hypothalamus. Experientia 40:223–224 1984

123.

Morton DJ: Effect of anticonvulsant drugs on the activity of acetyl CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.5) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.4) from pineal gland. Biochem Pharmacol 32:131213141983Morton DJ: Effect of anticonvulsant drugs on the activity of acetyl CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.5) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.4) from pineal gland. Biochem Pharmacol 32:1312–1314 1983

124.

Moskowitz MAWurtman RJ: Pathological states involving the pineal in Martini LBesser GM (eds): Clinical Neuroendocrinology. New York: Academic Press1977 pp 503526Moskowitz MA Wurtman RJ: Pathological states involving the pineal in Martini L Besser GM (eds): Clinical Neuroendocrinology. New York: Academic Press 1977 pp 503–526

125.

Mouret JCoindet JChouvet G: [Effect of pinealectomy on sleep stages and rhythms of the male rat.] Brain Res 81:971051974 (Fre)Mouret J Coindet J Chouvet G: [Effect of pinealectomy on sleep stages and rhythms of the male rat.] Brain Res 81:97–105 1974 (Fre)

126.

Neuwelt EALewy AJ: Disappearance of plasma melatonin after removal of a neoplastic pineal gland. N Engl JMed 308:113211351983Neuwelt EA Lewy AJ: Disappearance of plasma melatonin after removal of a neoplastic pineal gland. N Engl JMed 308:1132–1135 1983

127.

Oksche A: Evolution of the pineal complex: correlation of structure and function. Ophthalmic Res 16:88951984Oksche A: Evolution of the pineal complex: correlation of structure and function. Ophthalmic Res 16:88–95 1984

128.

Osol GSchwartz B: Melatonin in the human retina. Exp Eye Res 38:2132151984Osol G Schwartz B: Melatonin in the human retina. Exp Eye Res 38:213–215 1984

129.

Owen FFerrier INPoulter Met al: Hydroxy-indole-O-methyltransferase activity in human pineals: a comparison of controls and schizophrenics. Clin Endocrinol 19:3133171983Owen F Ferrier IN Poulter M et al: Hydroxy-indole-O-methyltransferase activity in human pineals: a comparison of controls and schizophrenics. Clin Endocrinol 19:313–317 1983

130.

Pang SFBrown GM: Regional concentrations of melatonin in the rat brain in the light and dark period. Life Sci 33:119912041983Pang SF Brown GM: Regional concentrations of melatonin in the rat brain in the light and dark period. Life Sci 33:1199–1204 1983

131.

Pang SFYew DT: Pigment aggregation by melatonin in the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid of guineapigs, Cavia porcellus. Experientia 35:2312331979Pang SF Yew DT: Pigment aggregation by melatonin in the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid of guineapigs Cavia porcellus. Experientia 35:231–233 1979

132.

Papasozomenos SC: Glial fibrillary acidic (GFA) protein-containing cells in the human pineal gland. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 42:3914081983Papasozomenos SC: Glial fibrillary acidic (GFA) protein-containing cells in the human pineal gland. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 42:391–408 1983

133.

Pardridge WMMietus LJ: Transport of albumin-bound melatonin through the blood-brain barrier. J Neurochem 34:176117631980Pardridge WM Mietus LJ: Transport of albumin-bound melatonin through the blood-brain barrier. J Neurochem 34:1761–1763 1980

134.

Paterson ATRickerby JSimpson Jet al: Possible interaction of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and the pineal in the control of territorial aggression in mice. Physiol Behav 24:8438481980Paterson AT Rickerby J Simpson J et al: Possible interaction of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and the pineal in the control of territorial aggression in mice. Physiol Behav 24:843–848 1980

135.

Pavel S: Arginine vasotocin as a pineal hormone. J Neural Transm 13 (Suppl):1351551978Pavel S: Arginine vasotocin as a pineal hormone. J Neural Transm 13 (Suppl):135–155 1978

136.

Pavel S: Pineal vasotocin and sleep: involvement of serotonin containing neurons. Brain Res Bull 4:7317341979Pavel S: Pineal vasotocin and sleep: involvement of serotonin containing neurons. Brain Res Bull 4:731–734 1979

137.

Pavel SGoldstein R: Further evidence that melatonin represents the releasing hormone for pineal vasotocin. J Endocrinol 82:161979Pavel S Goldstein R: Further evidence that melatonin represents the releasing hormone for pineal vasotocin. J Endocrinol 82:1–6 1979

138.

Pavel SGoldstein RPetrescu M: Vasotocin, melatonin and narcolepsy: possible involvement of the pineal gland in its patho-physiological mechanism. Peptides 1:2812841980Pavel S Goldstein R Petrescu M: Vasotocin melatonin and narcolepsy: possible involvement of the pineal gland in its patho-physiological mechanism. Peptides 1:281–284 1980

139.

Pavel SGoldstein RPopoviciu Let al: Pineal vasotocin: REM sleep dependent release into cerebrospinal fluid of man. Waking Sleeping 3:3473521979Pavel S Goldstein R Popoviciu L et al: Pineal vasotocin: REM sleep dependent release into cerebrospinal fluid of man. Waking Sleeping 3:347–352 1979

140.

Pavel SPsatta DGoldstein R: Slow-wave sleep induced in cats by extremely small amounts of synthetic and pineal vasotocin injected into the third ventricle of the brain. Brain Res Bull 2:2512541977Pavel S Psatta D Goldstein R: Slow-wave sleep induced in cats by extremely small amounts of synthetic and pineal vasotocin injected into the third ventricle of the brain. Brain Res Bull 2:251–254 1977

141.

Pazo JH: Effects of melatonin on spontaneous and evoked neuronal activity in the mesencephalic reticular formation. Brain Res Bull 4:7257301979Pazo JH: Effects of melatonin on spontaneous and evoked neuronal activity in the mesencephalic reticular formation. Brain Res Bull 4:725–730 1979

142.

Pearse AGE: The cytochemistry and ultrastructure of polypeptide hormone-producing cells of the APUD series and the embryologic, physiologic and pathologic implications of the concept. J Histochem Cytochem 17:3033131969Pearse AGE: The cytochemistry and ultrastructure of polypeptide hormone-producing cells of the APUD series and the embryologic physiologic and pathologic implications of the concept. J Histochem Cytochem 17:303–313 1969

143.

Penny R: Melatonin excretion in normal males and females: increase during puberty. Metabolism 31:8168231982Penny R: Melatonin excretion in normal males and females: increase during puberty. Metabolism 31:816–823 1982

144.

Pévet P: Anatomy of the pineal gland of mammals in Relkin R (ed): The Pineal Gland. New York: Elsevier1983 pp 175Pévet P: Anatomy of the pineal gland of mammals in Relkin R (ed): The Pineal Gland. New York: Elsevier 1983 pp 1–75

145.

Pévet P: Is 5-methoxytryptamine a pineal hormone? Psychoneuroendocrinology 8:61731983Pévet P: Is 5-methoxytryptamine a pineal hormone? Psychoneuroendocrinology 8:61–73 1983

146.

Pévet P: Ultrastructure of the mammalian pinealocyte in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press1981 Vol 1 pp 121154Pévet P: Ultrastructure of the mammalian pinealocyte in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton Fla: CRC Press 1981 Vol 1 pp 121–154

147.

Philo R: Catecholamines and pinealectomy-induced convulsions in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Prog Clin Biol Res 92:2332411982Philo R: Catecholamines and pinealectomy-induced convulsions in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Prog Clin Biol Res 92:233–241 1982

148.

Piezzi RSCavicchia JC: Effects of cold and melatonin on the microtubules of the toad sciatic nerve. Anat Rec 200:1151201981Piezzi RS Cavicchia JC: Effects of cold and melatonin on the microtubules of the toad sciatic nerve. Anat Rec 200:115–120 1981

149.

Poffenbarger MFuller GM: Is melatonin a microtubule inhibitor? Exp Cell Res 103:1351411976Poffenbarger M Fuller GM: Is melatonin a microtubule inhibitor? Exp Cell Res 103:135–141 1976

150.

Popoviciu LCorfariu OTTudosie Met al: Effects of arginine vasotocin on REM sleep in narcoleptics and in symptomatic hypersomniacs. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 53:3253281982Popoviciu L Corfariu OT Tudosie M et al: Effects of arginine vasotocin on REM sleep in narcoleptics and in symptomatic hypersomniacs. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 53:325–328 1982

151.

Preslock JP: The pineal gland: basic implications and clinical correlations. Endocr Rev 5:2823081984Preslock JP: The pineal gland: basic implications and clinical correlations. Endocr Rev 5:282–308 1984

152.

Prevedello MRRitta MNCardinali DP: Fast axonal transport in rat sciatic nerve. Inhibition by pineal indoles. Neurosci Lett 13:29341979Prevedello MR Ritta MN Cardinali DP: Fast axonal transport in rat sciatic nerve. Inhibition by pineal indoles. Neurosci Lett 13:29–34 1979

153.

Quay WB: Experimental and spontaneous pineal tumors: findings relating to endocrine and oncogenic factors and mechanisms. J Neural Transm 48:9231980Quay WB: Experimental and spontaneous pineal tumors: findings relating to endocrine and oncogenic factors and mechanisms. J Neural Transm 48:9–23 1980

154.

Quay WB: General biochemistry of the pineal gland of mammals in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press1981 pp 173198Quay WB: General biochemistry of the pineal gland of mammals in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton Fla: CRC Press 1981 pp 173–198

155.

Quay WBGorray KC: Pineal effects on metabolism and glucose homeostasis: evidence for lines of humoral mediation of pineal influences on tumor growth. J Neural Transm 47:1071201980Quay WB Gorray KC: Pineal effects on metabolism and glucose homeostasis: evidence for lines of humoral mediation of pineal influences on tumor growth. J Neural Transm 47:107–120 1980

156.

Rabson SMMendenhall EN: Familial hypertrophy of pineal body, hyperplasia of adrenal cortex and diabetes mellitus. Report of 3 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 26:2832901956Rabson SM Mendenhall EN: Familial hypertrophy of pineal body hyperplasia of adrenal cortex and diabetes mellitus. Report of 3 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 26:283–290 1956

157.

Ralph CL: Evolution of pineal control of endocrine function in lower vertebrates. Am Zoologist 23:5976051983Ralph CL: Evolution of pineal control of endocrine function in lower vertebrates. Am Zoologist 23:597–605 1983

158.

Ralph CL: Melatonin production by extra-pineal tissues in Birau NSchloot W (eds): Melatonin: Current Status and Perspectives. New York: Pergamon Press1981 pp 3546Ralph CL: Melatonin production by extra-pineal tissues in Birau N Schloot W (eds): Melatonin: Current Status and Perspectives. New York: Pergamon Press 1981 pp 35–46

159.

Rando TABowers CWZigmond RE: Localization of neurons in the rat spinal cord which project to the superior cervical ganglion. J Comp Neurol 196:73831981Rando TA Bowers CW Zigmond RE: Localization of neurons in the rat spinal cord which project to the superior cervical ganglion. J Comp Neurol 196:73–83 1981

160.

Redman JArmstrong SNg KT: Free-running activity rhythms in the rat: entrainment by melatonin. Science 219:108910911983Redman J Armstrong S Ng KT: Free-running activity rhythms in the rat: entrainment by melatonin. Science 219:1089–1091 1983

161.

Reiter RJ: The mammalian pineal gland: structure and function. Am J Anat 162:2873131981Reiter RJ: The mammalian pineal gland: structure and function. Am J Anat 162:287–313 1981

162.

Reiter RJ: The pineal and its hormones in the control of reproduction in mammals. Endocr Rev 1:1091311980Reiter RJ: The pineal and its hormones in the control of reproduction in mammals. Endocr Rev 1:109–131 1980

163.

Reiter RJ: The pineal gland: an intermediary between the environment and the endocrine system. Psychoneuroendocrinology 8:31401983Reiter RJ: The pineal gland: an intermediary between the environment and the endocrine system. Psychoneuroendocrinology 8:31–40 1983

164.

Reiter RJRichardson BAKing TS: The pineal gland and its indole products: their importance in the control of reproduction in mammals in Relkin R (ed): The Pineal Gland. New York: Elsevier1983 pp 151199Reiter RJ Richardson BA King TS: The pineal gland and its indole products: their importance in the control of reproduction in mammals in Relkin R (ed): The Pineal Gland. New York: Elsevier 1983 pp 151–199

165.

Relkin R: The human pineal in Relkin R (ed): The Pineal Gland. New York: Elsevier1983 pp 273301Relkin R: The human pineal in Relkin R (ed): The Pineal Gland. New York: Elsevier 1983 pp 273–301

166.

Relkin R: Miscellaneous effects of the pineal in Relkin R (ed): The Pineal Gland. New York: Elsevier1983 pp 247272Relkin R: Miscellaneous effects of the pineal in Relkin R (ed): The Pineal Gland. New York: Elsevier 1983 pp 247–272

167.

Relkin RSchneck L: Effect of pinealectomy on rat brain myelin. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 148:3373381975Relkin R Schneck L: Effect of pinealectomy on rat brain myelin. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 148:337–338 1975

168.

Reppert SMChez RAAnderson Aet al: Maternalfetal transfer of melatonin in the non-human primate. Pediatr Res 13:7887911979Reppert SM Chez RA Anderson A et al: Maternalfetal transfer of melatonin in the non-human primate. Pediatr Res 13:788–791 1979

169.

Reppert SMKlein DC: Transport of maternal [3H]-melatonin to suckling rats and the fate of [3H]melatonin in the neonatal rat. Endocrinology 102:5825881978Reppert SM Klein DC: Transport of maternal [3H]-melatonin to suckling rats and the fate of [3H]melatonin in the neonatal rat. Endocrinology 102:582–588 1978

170.

Reppert SMPerlow MJKlein DC: Cerebrospinal fluid melatonin in Wood JH (ed): Neurobiology of Cerebrospinal Fluid 1. New York: Plenum Press1980 pp 579589Reppert SM Perlow MJ Klein DC: Cerebrospinal fluid melatonin in Wood JH (ed): Neurobiology of Cerebrospinal Fluid 1. New York: Plenum Press 1980 pp 579–589

171.

Reuss SVollrath L: Electrophysiological properties of rat pinealocytes: evidence for circadian and ultradian rhythms. Exp Brain Res 55:4554611984Reuss S Vollrath L: Electrophysiological properties of rat pinealocytes: evidence for circadian and ultradian rhythms. Exp Brain Res 55:455–461 1984

172.

Reyes PF: Age related histologic changes in the human pineal gland. Prog Clin Biol Res 92:2532611982Reyes PF: Age related histologic changes in the human pineal gland. Prog Clin Biol Res 92:253–261 1982

173.

Rodriguez MSosa JHernandez Get al: Pineal indols and testosterone affect exploratory activity of male rats. Experientia 40:3973981984Rodriguez M Sosa J Hernandez G et al: Pineal indols and testosterone affect exploratory activity of male rats. Experientia 40:397–398 1984

174.

Rollag MD: Methods for measuring pineal hormones in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press1981 Vol 1 pp 273302Rollag MD: Methods for measuring pineal hormones in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton Fla: CRC Press 1981 Vol 1 pp 273–302

175.

Romijn HJ: Minireview. The pineal, a tranquillizing organ? Life Sci 23:225722741978Romijn HJ: Minireview. The pineal a tranquillizing organ? Life Sci 23:2257–2274 1978

176.

Roth JJGern WARoth ECet al: Nonpineal melatonin in the alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Science 210:5485501980Roth JJ Gern WA Roth EC et al: Nonpineal melatonin in the alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Science 210:548–550 1980

177.

Rowe VParr J: Pineal cells enhance choline acetyltransferase activity in sympathetic neurons. J Neurobiol 11:5475561980Rowe V Parr J: Pineal cells enhance choline acetyltransferase activity in sympathetic neurons. J Neurobiol 11:547–556 1980

178.

Saavedra JMAlexander N: Catecholamines and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in selected brain nuclei and in the pineal gland of neurogenically hypertensive rats. Brain Res 274:3883921983Saavedra JM Alexander N: Catecholamines and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in selected brain nuclei and in the pineal gland of neurogenically hypertensive rats. Brain Res 274:388–392 1983

179.

Sadun AASchaechter JDSmith LEH: A retinohypothalamic pathway in man: light mediation of circadian rhythms. Brain Res 302:3713771984Sadun AA Schaechter JD Smith LEH: A retinohypothalamic pathway in man: light mediation of circadian rhythms. Brain Res 302:371–377 1984

180.

Sallanon MClaustrat BTouret M: Presence of melatonin in various cat brainstem nuclei determined by radioimmunoassay. Acta Endocrinol 101:1611651982Sallanon M Claustrat B Touret M: Presence of melatonin in various cat brainstem nuclei determined by radioimmunoassay. Acta Endocrinol 101:161–165 1982

181.

Samarasinghe DDPetterborg LJZeagler JWet al: On the occurrence of a myeloid body in pinealocytes of the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus. An electron-microscopic study. Cell Tissue Res 228:6496591983Samarasinghe DD Petterborg LJ Zeagler JW et al: On the occurrence of a myeloid body in pinealocytes of the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus. An electron-microscopic study. Cell Tissue Res 228:649–659 1983

182.

Semm P: Neurobiological investigations on the magnetic sensitivity of the pineal gland in rodents and pigeons. Comp Biochem Physiol (A) 76:6836891983Semm P: Neurobiological investigations on the magnetic sensitivity of the pineal gland in rodents and pigeons. Comp Biochem Physiol (A) 76:683–689 1983

183.

Shuangshoti SNetsky MGSwitter DJ: Combined congenital vascular anomalies and neuroepithelial (colloid) cysts. Neurology 28:5525551978Shuangshoti S Netsky MG Switter DJ: Combined congenital vascular anomalies and neuroepithelial (colloid) cysts. Neurology 28:552–555 1978

184.

Silman RELeone RMHooper RJLet al: Melatonin, the pineal gland and human puberty. Nature 282:3013031979Silman RE Leone RM Hooper RJL et al: Melatonin the pineal gland and human puberty. Nature 282:301–303 1979

185.

Sizonenko PCMoore DCPaunier Let al: Melatonin secretion in relation to sleep in epileptics. Prog Brain Res 52:5495511979Sizonenko PC Moore DC Paunier L et al: Melatonin secretion in relation to sleep in epileptics. Prog Brain Res 52:549–551 1979

186.

Smith ARKappers JA: Effect of pinealectomy, gonadectomy, pCPA and pineal extracts on the rat parvo cellular neurosecretory hypothalamic system; a fluorescence histochemical investigation. Brain Res 86:3533711975Smith AR Kappers JA: Effect of pinealectomy gonadectomy pCPA and pineal extracts on the rat parvo cellular neurosecretory hypothalamic system; a fluorescence histochemical investigation. Brain Res 86:353–371 1975

187.

Smith I: Indoles of pineal origin: biochemical and physiological status. Psychoneuroendocrinology 8:41601983Smith I: Indoles of pineal origin: biochemical and physiological status. Psychoneuroendocrinology 8:41–60 1983

188.

Smith JAO'Hara JSchiff AA: Altered diurnal serum melatonin rhythm in blind men. Lancet 2:9331981 (Letter)Smith JA O'Hara J Schiff AA: Altered diurnal serum melatonin rhythm in blind men. Lancet 2:933 1981 (Letter)

189.

Smith JAPadwick DMee TJXet al: Synchronous nyctohemeral rhythms in human blood melatonin and in human post-mortem pineal enzyme. Clin Endocrinol 6:2192251977Smith JA Padwick D Mee TJX et al: Synchronous nyctohemeral rhythms in human blood melatonin and in human post-mortem pineal enzyme. Clin Endocrinol 6:219–225 1977

190.

Smulders APWright EM: Role of choroid plexus in transport of melatonin between blood and brain. Brain Res 191:5555581980Smulders AP Wright EM: Role of choroid plexus in transport of melatonin between blood and brain. Brain Res 191:555–558 1980

191.

Sugden D: Psychopharmacological effects of melatonin in mouse and rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 227:5875911983Sugden D: Psychopharmacological effects of melatonin in mouse and rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 227:587–591 1983

192.

Sulzman FMEllman DFuller CAet al: Neurospora circadian rhythms in space: a reexamination of the endogenous-exogenous question. Science 225:2322341984Sulzman FM Ellman D Fuller CA et al: Neurospora circadian rhythms in space: a reexamination of the endogenous-exogenous question. Science 225:232–234 1984

193.

Tamarkin LAbastillas PChen HCet al: The daily profile of plasma melatonin in obese and Prader-Willi syndrome children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 55:4914951982Tamarkin L Abastillas P Chen HC et al: The daily profile of plasma melatonin in obese and Prader-Willi syndrome children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 55:491–495 1982

194.

Tamarkin LDanforth DLichter Aet al: Decreased nocturnal plasma melatonin peak in patients with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Science 216:100310051982Tamarkin L Danforth D Lichter A et al: Decreased nocturnal plasma melatonin peak in patients with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Science 216:1003–1005 1982

195.

Tan CHKhoo JCM: Melatonin concentrations in human serum, ventricular and lumbar cerebrospinal fluids as an index of the secretory pathway of the pineal gland. Horm Res 14:2242331981Tan CH Khoo JCM: Melatonin concentrations in human serum ventricular and lumbar cerebrospinal fluids as an index of the secretory pathway of the pineal gland. Horm Res 14:224–233 1981

196.

Tapp E: The histology and pathology of the human pineal gland. Prog Brain Res 52:4815001979Tapp E: The histology and pathology of the human pineal gland. Prog Brain Res 52:481–500 1979

197.

Tapp E: The pineal gland in malignancy in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press1981 Vol 3 pp 171188Tapp E: The pineal gland in malignancy in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton Fla: CRC Press 1981 Vol 3 pp 171–188

198.

Tapp E: Pineal gland in rats suffering from malignancy. J Neural Transm 48:1311351980Tapp E: Pineal gland in rats suffering from malignancy. J Neural Transm 48:131–135 1980

199.

Tetsuo MPoth MMarkey SP: Melatonin metabolite excretion during childhood and puberty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 55:3113131982Tetsuo M Poth M Markey SP: Melatonin metabolite excretion during childhood and puberty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 55:311–313 1982

200.

Touitou YFevre MBogdan Aet al: Patterns of plasma melatonin with ageing and mental condition: stability of nyctohemeral rhythms and differences in seasonal variations. Acta Endocrinol 106:1451511984Touitou Y Fevre M Bogdan A et al: Patterns of plasma melatonin with ageing and mental condition: stability of nyctohemeral rhythms and differences in seasonal variations. Acta Endocrinol 106:145–151 1984

201.

Ueck MWake K: The pinealocyte — a paraneuron. Prog Brain Res 52:1411471979Ueck M Wake K: The pinealocyte — a paraneuron. Prog Brain Res 52:141–147 1979

202.

Vacas MICardinali DP: Diurnal changes in melatonin binding sites of hamster and rat brains. Correlations with neuroendocrine responsiveness to melatonin. NeurosciLett 15:2592631979Vacas MI Cardinali DP: Diurnal changes in melatonin binding sites of hamster and rat brains. Correlations with neuroendocrine responsiveness to melatonin. NeurosciLett 15:259–263 1979

203.

Vacas MIBerria MICardinali DPet al: Melatonin inhibits 0-adrenoceptor-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in rat astroglial cell cultures. Neuroendocrinology 38:1761811984Vacas MI Berria MI Cardinali DP et al: Melatonin inhibits 0-adrenoceptor-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in rat astroglial cell cultures. Neuroendocrinology 38:176–181 1984

204.

Vivien-Roels B: The pineal gland and the integration of environmental information: possible role of hydroxy- and methoxyindoles. Mol Physiol 4:3313451983Vivien-Roels B: The pineal gland and the integration of environmental information: possible role of hydroxy- and methoxyindoles. Mol Physiol 4:331–345 1983

205.

Vollrath LSemm PGammel G: Sleep induction by intranasal application of melatonin in Birau NSchloot W (eds): Melatonin: Current Status and Perspectives. New York: Pergamon Press1981 pp 327329Vollrath L Semm P Gammel G: Sleep induction by intranasal application of melatonin in Birau N Schloot W (eds): Melatonin: Current Status and Perspectives. New York: Pergamon Press 1981 pp 327–329

206.

Vriend JGibbs FP: Coincidence of counter-antigonadal and counter-antithyroid action of melatonin administration 341 via the drinking water in male golden hamsters. Life Sci 34:6176231984Vriend J Gibbs FP: Coincidence of counter-antigonadal and counter-antithyroid action of melatonin administration 341 via the drinking water in male golden hamsters. Life Sci 34:617–623 1984

207.

Wainwright SD: Role of the pineal gland in the vertebrate master biological clock in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press1981 Vol 3 pp 5379Wainwright SD: Role of the pineal gland in the vertebrate master biological clock in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton Fla: CRC Press 1981 Vol 3 pp 53–79

208.

Waldhauser FWeiszenbacher GFrisch Het al: Fall in nocturnal serum melatonin during prepuberty and pubescence. Lancet 1:3623651984Waldhauser F Weiszenbacher G Frisch H et al: Fall in nocturnal serum melatonin during prepuberty and pubescence. Lancet 1:362–365 1984

209.

Weatherhead BLogan A: Interaction of α-melanocytestimulating hormone, melatonin, cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in the control of melanogenesis in hair follicle melanocytes in vitro. J Endocrinol 90:89961981Weatherhead B Logan A: Interaction of α-melanocytestimulating hormone melatonin cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in the control of melanogenesis in hair follicle melanocytes in vitro. J Endocrinol 90:89–96 1981

210.

Weinberg UD'Eletto RDWeitzman EDet al: Circulating melatonin in man: episodic secretion throughout the light-dark cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 48:1141181979Weinberg U D'Eletto RD Weitzman ED et al: Circulating melatonin in man: episodic secretion throughout the light-dark cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 48:114–118 1979

211.

Weiner LP: Possible role of androgen receptors in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A hypothesis. Arch Neurol 37:1291311980Weiner LP: Possible role of androgen receptors in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A hypothesis. Arch Neurol 37:129–131 1980

212.

Weitzman EDWeinberg UD'Eletto Ret al: Studies of the 24 hour rhythm of melatonin in man. J Neural Transm 13 (Suppl):3253371978Weitzman ED Weinberg U D'Eletto R et al: Studies of the 24 hour rhythm of melatonin in man. J Neural Transm 13 (Suppl):325–337 1978

213.

Wetterberg L: Clinical importance of melatonin. Prog Brain Res 52:5395471979Wetterberg L: Clinical importance of melatonin. Prog Brain Res 52:539–547 1979

214.

Wetterberg L: Melatonin as a chronobiological marker in health and disease in Axelrod JFraschini FVelo GP (eds): The Pineal Gland and its Endocrine Role. New York: Plenum Press1983 pp 575587Wetterberg L: Melatonin as a chronobiological marker in health and disease in Axelrod J Fraschini F Velo GP (eds): The Pineal Gland and its Endocrine Role. New York: Plenum Press 1983 pp 575–587

215.

Wetterberg L: The relationship between the pineal gland and the pituitary-adrenal axis in health, endocrine and psychiatric conditions. Psychoneuroendocrinology 8:75801983Wetterberg L: The relationship between the pineal gland and the pituitary-adrenal axis in health endocrine and psychiatric conditions. Psychoneuroendocrinology 8:75–80 1983

216.

Wetterberg LArendt JPaunier Let al: Human serum melatonin changes during the menstrual cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 42:1851881976Wetterberg L Arendt J Paunier L et al: Human serum melatonin changes during the menstrual cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 42:185–188 1976

217.

Wilson BWAnderson LEHilton DIet al: Chronic exposure to 60-Hz electric fields: effects on pineal function in the rat. Bioelectromagnetics 2:3713801981Wilson BW Anderson LE Hilton DI et al: Chronic exposure to 60-Hz electric fields: effects on pineal function in the rat. Bioelectromagnetics 2:371–380 1981

218.

Winston MJohnson EKelleher JKet al: Melatonin: cellular effects on live stentors correlated with the inhibition of colchicine-binding to microtubule protein. Cytobios 9:2372431974Winston M Johnson E Kelleher JK et al: Melatonin: cellular effects on live stentors correlated with the inhibition of colchicine-binding to microtubule protein. Cytobios 9:237–243 1974

219.

Winters WDPetit JPLakin MLet al: Effects of amine pretreatment on ketamine catatonia in pinealectomized or hypophysectomized animals. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 230:69741984Winters WD Petit JP Lakin ML et al: Effects of amine pretreatment on ketamine catatonia in pinealectomized or hypophysectomized animals. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 230:69–74 1984

220.

Wurtman RJAxelrod JBarchas JD: Age and enzyme activity in the human pineal. J Clin Endocrinol 24:2993011964Wurtman RJ Axelrod J Barchas JD: Age and enzyme activity in the human pineal. J Clin Endocrinol 24:299–301 1964

221.

Wurtman RJAxelrod JChu EW: Melatonin, a pineal substance: effect on the rat ovary. Science 141:2772781963Wurtman RJ Axelrod J Chu EW: Melatonin a pineal substance: effect on the rat ovary. Science 141:277–278 1963

222.

Wurtman RJAxelrod JPotter LT: The uptake of H3-melatonin in endocrine and nervous tissues and the effects of constant light exposure. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 143:3143181964Wurtman RJ Axelrod J Potter LT: The uptake of H3-melatonin in endocrine and nervous tissues and the effects of constant light exposure. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 143:314–318 1964

223.

Wurtman RJMoskowitz MA: The pineal organ (first of two parts). N Engl J Med 296:132913331977Wurtman RJ Moskowitz MA: The pineal organ (first of two parts). N Engl J Med 296:1329–1333 1977

224.

Wurtman RJMoskowitz MA: The pineal organ (second of two parts). N Engl J Med 296:138313861977Wurtman RJ Moskowitz MA: The pineal organ (second of two parts). N Engl J Med 296:1383–1386 1977

225.

Young IMSilman RE: Pineal methoxyindoles in the human in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press1981 Vol 3 pp 189218Young IM Silman RE: Pineal methoxyindoles in the human in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton Fla: CRC Press 1981 Vol 3 pp 189–218

226.

Young SNGauthier SKiely MEet al: Effect of oral melatonin administration on melatonin, 5-hydroxyin-doleacetic acid, indoleacetic acid, and cyclic nucleotides in human cerebrospinal fluid. Neuroendocrinology 39:87921984Young SN Gauthier S Kiely ME et al: Effect of oral melatonin administration on melatonin 5-hydroxyin-doleacetic acid indoleacetic acid and cyclic nucleotides in human cerebrospinal fluid. Neuroendocrinology 39:87–92 1984

227.

Zatz M: Pharmacology of the rat pineal gland in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press1981 Vol 1 pp 229242Zatz M: Pharmacology of the rat pineal gland in Reiter RJ (ed): The Pineal Gland. Boca Raton Fla: CRC Press 1981 Vol l pp 229–242

TrendMD

Cited By

Metrics

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 377 377 107
Full Text Views 375 375 16
PDF Downloads 263 263 13
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0

PubMed

Google Scholar