Fluid-percussion model of mechanical brain injury in the cat

Humbert G. Sullivan M.D.1, Jullo Martinez M.D.1, Donald P. Becker M.D.1, J. Douglas Miller M.D., Ph.D., F.R.C.S.1, Richard Griffith Ph.D.1, and Abund O. Wist M.D.1
View More View Less
  • 1 Divisions of Neurological Surgery and Neuropathology, and the University Computer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Medical College of Virginia, Health Sciences Division, Richmond, Virginia
Restricted access

Purchase Now

USD  $45.00

JNS + Pediatrics - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $515.00

JNS + Pediatrics + Spine - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $612.00
Print or Print + Online

✓ Mechanical brain injury was produced in 36 cats with a fluid-percussion model in which brain damage or dysfunction is produced by a single, brief, hydraulically-induced pressure transient that is conducted through the brain. Fluid-percussion injury induces elastic deformation of the brain resembling the brain deformation known to occur following head impact. Physiological responses and pathological changes following injury were expressed as a function of peak pressure. Macroscopic central nervous system lesions concentrated at the pontomesencephalic junction, cervicomedullary junction, and in the cerebellar tonsils were consistently observed at and above 2.6 atmospheres (atm). At higher levels of injury (≥ 3.2 atm) there was extensive basal subarachnoid hemorrhage. At very high levels of injury (>4.0 atm) hemorrhagic contusions were noted at the cerebral hemisphere impact site. A spectrum of neuronal alterations was identified in the damaged areas. Computer analysis showed correlation of electroencephalographic (EEG) changes with the neuropathological changes, since EEG recovery became severely impaired above 2.6 atm. No EEG changes were noted below 1.5 atm. From 1.5 to 2.2 atm there was a physiological response to injury but no significant changes were seen on neuropathological examination. This range of injury should permit further studies of the more subtle changes following mechanical brain injury without intraparenchymal hemorrhage or subarachnoid hemorrhage. The fluid-percussion model relates brain deformation following mechanical loading to a single pressure transient that is easily measured and controlled. Further quantitative investigation into the pathobiology of mechanical brain injury following graded brain deformation is thus made possible.

JNS + Pediatrics - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $515.00

JNS + Pediatrics + Spine - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $612.00
  • 1.

    Chason JL, , Fernando OU, & Hodgson VR, et al: Experimental brain concussion: morphogenic findings and a new cytologic hypothesis. J Trauma 6:767779, 1966 Chason JL, Fernando OU, Hodgson VR, et al: Experimental brain concussion: morphogenic findings and a new cytologic hypothesis. J Trauma 6:767–779, 1966

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Cushing H: Some experimental and clinical observations concerning states of increased intracranial tension. Am J Med Sci 124:375400, 1902 Cushing H: Some experimental and clinical observations concerning states of increased intracranial tension. Am J Med Sci 124:375–400, 1902

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Gennarelli TA, & Ommaya AK: Comparison of translational and rotational head motions in experimental cerebral concussion, in: Proceedings of the 15th Strapp Car Crash Conference. New York: Society of Automobile Engineers, 1971, pp 797803 Gennarelli TA, Ommaya AK: Comparison of translational and rotational head motions in experimental cerebral concussion, in: Proceedings of the 15th Strapp Car Crash Conference. New York: Society of Automobile Engineers, 1971, pp 797–803

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Gennarelli TA, , Thibault LE, & Ommaya AK: Pathophysiologic responses to rotational and translational accelerations of the head, in: Proceedings of the 16th Strapp Car Crash Conference. New York: Society of Automobile Engineers, 1972, pp 295308 Gennarelli TA, Thibault LE, Ommaya AK: Pathophysiologic responses to rotational and translational accelerations of the head, in: Proceedings of the 16th Strapp Car Crash Conference. New York: Society of Automobile Engineers, 1972, pp 295–308

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Govons SR: Experimental head injury produced by blasting caps. An experimental study. Surgery 15:606621, 1944 Govons SR: Experimental head injury produced by blasting caps. An experimental study. Surgery 15:606–621, 1944

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Gurdjian ES: Recent advances in the study of the mechanism of impact injury of the head — a summary. Clin Neurosurg 19:142, 1972 Gurdjian ES: Recent advances in the study of the mechanism of impact injury of the head — a summary. Clin Neurosurg 19:1–42, 1972

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Gurdjian ES, , Hodgson VR, & Thomas LM, et al: Significance of relative movements of scalp, skull, and intracranial contents during impact injury of the head. J Neurosurg 29:7073, 1968 Gurdjian ES, Hodgson VR, Thomas LM, et al: Significance of relative movements of scalp, skull, and intracranial contents during impact injury of the head. J Neurosurg 29:70–73, 1968

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Gurdjian ES, & Lissner HR: Photoelastic confirmation of the presence of shear-strains of the craniospinal junction in closed head injury. J Neurosurg 18:5860, 1961 Gurdjian ES, Lissner HR: Photoelastic confirmation of the presence of shear-strains of the craniospinal junction in closed head injury. J Neurosurg 18:58–60, 1961

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Gurdjian ES, , Lissner HR, & Latimer FR, et al: Quantitative determination of acceleration and intracranial pressure in experimental head injury. Preliminary report. Neurology 3:417423, 1963 Gurdjian ES, Lissner HR, Latimer FR, et al: Quantitative determination of acceleration and intracranial pressure in experimental head injury. Preliminary report. Neurology 3:417–423, 1963

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Gurdjian ES, & Webster JE: Experimental head injury with special reference to the mechanical factors in acute trauma. Surg Gynecol Obstet 76:623634, 1943 Gurdjian ES, Webster JE: Experimental head injury with special reference to the mechanical factors in acute trauma. Surg Gynecol Obstet 76:623–634, 1943

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Harris LS, , Roessmann U, & Friede RL: Bursting of the cerebral ventricular walls. J Pathol Bacteriol 96:3338, 1968 Harris LS, Roessmann U, Friede RL: Bursting of the cerebral ventricular walls. J Pathol Bacteriol 96:33–38, 1968

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Holbourn AHS: The mechanics of brain injuries. Br Med Bull 3:147149, 1945 Holbourn AHS: The mechanics of brain injuries. Br Med Bull 3:147–149, 1945

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Holbourn AHS: Mechanics of head injuries. Lancet 2:438441, 1943 Holbourn AHS: Mechanics of head injuries. Lancet 2:438–441, 1943

  • 14.

    Lindgren S: Experimental studies of mechanical effects in head injuries. Acta Chir Scand (Suppl) 360:1100, 1966 Lindgren S: Experimental studies of mechanical effects in head injuries. Acta Chir Scand (Suppl) 360:1–100, 1966

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Lindgren S, & Rinder L: Experimental studies in head injury. I. Some factors influencing results of model experiments. Biophysik 2:320329, 1965 Lindgren S, Rinder L: Experimental studies in head injury. I. Some factors influencing results of model experiments. Biophysik 2:320–329, 1965

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Lindgren S, & Rinder L: Experimental studies in head injury. II. Pressure propagation in “percussion concussion.” Biophysik 3:174180, 1966 Lindgren S, Rinder L: Experimental studies in head injury. II. Pressure propagation in “percussion concussion.” Biophysik 3:174–180, 1966

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Lindgren S, & Rinder L: Production and distribution of intracranial and intraspinal pressure changes at sudden extradural fluid volume input in rabbits. Acta Physiol Scand 76:340351, 1969 Lindgren S, Rinder L: Production and distribution of intracranial and intraspinal pressure changes at sudden extradural fluid volume input in rabbits. Acta Physiol Scand 76:340–351, 1969

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Ommaya AK, & Gennarelli TA: Cerebral concussion and traumatic unconsciousness. Brain 97:633654, 1974 Ommaya AK, Gennarelli TA: Cerebral concussion and traumatic unconsciousness. Brain 97:633–654, 1974

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Ommaya AK, , Grubb RL Jr, & Naumann RA: Coup and contre-coup injury: observations on the mechanics of visible brain injuries in the rhesus monkey. J Neurosurg 35:503516, 1971 Ommaya AK, Grubb RL Jr, Naumann RA: Coup and contre-coup injury: observations on the mechanics of visible brain injuries in the rhesus monkey. J Neurosurg 35:503–516, 1971

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Pudenz RH, & Shelden CH: The lucite calvarium — a method for direct observation of the brain. II. Cranial trauma and brain movement. J Neurosurg 3:487505, 1946 Pudenz RH, Shelden CH: The lucite calvarium — a method for direct observation of the brain. II. Cranial trauma and brain movement. J Neurosurg 3:487–505, 1946

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Rinder L: “Concussive response” and intracranial pressure changes at sudden extradural fluid volume input in rabbits. Acta Physiol Scand 76:352360, 1969 Rinder L: “Concussive response” and intracranial pressure changes at sudden extradural fluid volume input in rabbits. Acta Physiol Scand 76:352–360, 1969

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Rinder L, & Olsson Y: Studies on vascular permeability in experimental brain concussion. I. Distribution of circulating fluorescent indicators in the brain and cervical cord after sudden mechanical loading of the brain. Acta Neuropathol 11:183200, 1968 Rinder L, Olsson Y: Studies on vascular permeability in experimental brain concussion. I. Distribution of circulating fluorescent indicators in the brain and cervical cord after sudden mechanical loading of the brain. Acta Neuropathol 11:183–200, 1968

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Rockoff SD, & Ommaya AK: Experimental head trauma: cerebral angiographic observations in the early post-traumatic period. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 91:10261035, 1964 Rockoff SD, Ommaya AK: Experimental head trauma: cerebral angiographic observations in the early post-traumatic period. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 91:1026–1035, 1964

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Scott WW: Physiology of concussion. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 43:270283, 1940 Scott WW: Physiology of concussion. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 43:270–283, 1940

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Tedeschi CG: Cerebral injury by blunt mechanical trauma. Special reference to the effects of repeated impacts of minimal intensity: observations on experimental animals. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 53:333354, 1945 Tedeschi CG: Cerebral injury by blunt mechanical trauma. Special reference to the effects of repeated impacts of minimal intensity: observations on experimental animals. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 53:333–354, 1945

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Walker AE, , Kollros JJ, & Case TJ: The physiological basis of concussion. J Neurosurg 1:103116, 1944 Walker AE, Kollros JJ, Case TJ: The physiological basis of concussion. J Neurosurg 1:103–116, 1944

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 650 211 24
Full Text Views 330 23 1
PDF Downloads 153 21 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0