During the early 1950's only a few reports concerning this technique appeared in the literature.11 Starting in the late 1950's, however, a new interest developed in the use of Pantopaque as a contrast medium for the diagnosis of intracranial lesions.14,18,19,24 In the 1960's Pantopaque intracranial examination, particularly for the study of the posterior fossa, became more and more accepted.1,2,13,22 In fact, many centers now consider Pantopaque the contrast medium of choice for the demonstration of cerebellopontine pathology, particularly the acoustic neuromas.4,20,21
Positive contrast ventriculography, Pantopaque ventriculography, posterior fossa myelography, myeloencephalography, and cerebellopontine cisternography represent different variations of the use of iodophendylate radiography in the clinical study of the intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. These procedures are becoming quite popular, in spite of reports of damage caused by this contrast medium.7,9
Experimental Pantopaque toxicity studies have been remarkably few. In the original report,23 autopsy studies of dogs that had been injected intrathecally with Pantopaque showed, in an unspecified number of animals, cystic formations around and within the spinal cord. These lesions were apparently less severe than the comparable lesions caused by the more viscous iodinated poppy seed oil (Lipiodol). Fisher8 in 1965 showed uniform histological evidence of acute and chronic meningeal irritation after Pantopaque myelography in cats. We have been able to find only three reports concerning experimental Pantopaque ventriculography.10,12,15
Because of this paucity of available information, we have undertaken an extensive study of experimental Pantopaque ventriculography. For one part of this study, we have purposely chosen to use beagles, a strain of dogs that normally has a particularly high incidence of communicating hydrocephalus. In these animals we anticipated a longer than usual retention of the contrast medium within the ventricular system. This offers some obvious advantages if compared to a model in which free-flowing CSF conditions are present. In this report we present evidence that the injection of Pantopaque into the ventricles of purebred beagle dogs can produce devastating results.
The authors are indebted to Mrs. Joyce Johnson and Messrs. James Hines and John Ewell for their excellent technical assistance.
Burrows EH: Positive contrast examination (cerebellopontine cisternography) in extrameatal acoustic neurofibromas. Brit J Radiol 42:902–9131969Burrows EH: Positive contrast examination (cerebellopontine cisternography) in extrameatal acoustic neurofibromas. Brit J Radiol 42:
Clark RGMilhorat TH: Unpublished data.
Jaeger R: Irritating effect of iodized vegetable oils on the brain and spinal cord when divided into small particles. Arch Neurol Psychiat 64:715–7191950Jaeger R: Irritating effect of iodized vegetable oils on the brain and spinal cord when divided into small particles. Arch Neurol Psychiat 64: