Letter to the Editor. Bleeding risk after cavernous malformation surgery: remnant or recurrence?

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  • 1 University of Brescia, Italy
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Artist’s illustration of the classic mulberry appearance of a cavernoma. This illustration represents the Seven Cavernomas series by Dr. Michael Lawton, a collection of articles defining the tenets and techniques for the treatment of cavernous malformations, a taxonomy for classifying these lesions, and the nuances of their surgical approaches. Artist: Peter M. Lawrence. Used with permission from Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona. See the article by Garcia et al. (pp 671–682).

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Contributor Notes

Correspondence Edoardo Agosti: edoardo_agosti@libero.it.

INCLUDE WHEN CITING Published online March 12, 2021; DOI: 10.3171/2020.12.JNS204192.

Disclosures The authors report no conflict of interest.

  • 1

    Garcia RM , Oh T , Cole TS , et al. Recurrent brainstem cavernous malformations following primary resection: blind spots, fine lines, and the right-angle method . J Neurosurg . Published online November 20, 2020. doi: 10.3171/2020.6.JNS201555

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  • 2

    Cenzato M , Stefini R , Ambrosi C , Giovanelli M . Post-operative remnants of brainstem cavernomas: incidence, risk factors and management . Acta Neurochir (Wien) . 2008 ; 150 (9 ):879 887 .

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  • 3

    Li D , Yang Y , Hao S-Y , et al. Hemorrhage risk, surgical management, and functional outcome of brainstem cavernous malformations . J Neurosurg . 2013 ; 119 (4 ):996 1008 .

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  • 4

    Fontanella MM , Agosti E , Zanin L , et al. Cerebral cavernous malformation remnants after surgery: a single-center series with long-term bleeding risk analysis . Neurosurg Rev . Published online November 19, 2020. doi:10.1007/s10143-020-01436-7

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  • 5

    Clatterbuck RE , Moriarity JL , Elmaci I , et al. Dynamic nature of cavernous malformations: a prospective magnetic resonance imaging study with volumetric analysis . J Neurosurg . 2000 ; 93 (6 ):981 986 .

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  • 6

    Zabramski JM , Wascher TM , Spetzler RF , et al. The natural history of familial cavernous malformations: results of an ongoing study . J Neurosurg . 1994 ;80 (3 ):422 432 .

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  • 7

    Porter RW , Detwiler PW , Spetzler RF , et al. Cavernous malformations of the brainstem: experience with 100 patients . J Neurosurg . 1999 ;90 (1 ):50 58 .

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  • 8

    Chen B , Göricke S , Wrede K , et al. Reliable? The value of early postoperative magnetic resonance imaging after cerebral cavernous malformation surgery . World Neurosurg . 2017 ;103 :138144 .

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  • 9

    Lanzino G , Spetzler RF , eds. Cavernous Malformations of the Brain and Spinal Cord . Thieme Medical Publishers ; 2007 .

  • 10

    Agosti E , Flemming KD , Lanzino G . Symptomatic cavernous malformation presenting with seizure without hemorrhage: analysis of factors influencing clinical presentation . World Neurosurg . 2019 ; 129 :e387e392 .

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  • 1

    Garcia RM , Ivan ME , Lawton MT . Brainstem cavernous malformations: surgical results in 104 patients and a proposed grading system to predict neurological outcomes . Neurosurgery . 2015 ;76 (3 ):265 268 .

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  • 2

    Ziyal IM , Ozgen T . Natural history of brainstem cavernous malformations . Neurosurgery . 2001 ; 49 (4 ):1023 1024 .

  • 3

    Bruneau M , Bijlenga P , Reverdin A , et al. Early surgery for brainstem cavernomas . Acta Neurochir (Wien) . 2006 ; 148 (4 ):405 414 .

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  • 4

    Li D , Yang Y , Hao S-Y , et al. Hemorrhage risk, surgical management, and functional outcome of brainstem cavernous malformations . J Neurosurg . 2013 ; 119 (4 ):996 1008 .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Wang C-C , Liu A , Zhang J-T , et al. Surgical management of brain-stem cavernous malformations: report of 137 cases . Surg Neurol . 2003 ;59 (6 ):444 454 .

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  • 6

    Ferroli P , Sinisi M , Franzini A , et al. Brainstem cavernomas: long-term results of microsurgical resection in 52 patients . Neurosurgery . 2005 ; 56 (6 ):1203 1214 .

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  • 7

    Zabramski JM , Wascher TM , Spetzler RF , et al. The natural history of familial cavernous malformations: results of an ongoing study . J Neurosurg . 1994 ; 80 (3 ):422 432 .

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    • Export Citation

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