Gender diversity in United States neurosurgery training programs

View More View Less
  • 1 University of Vermont College of Medicine;
  • | 2 Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation and
  • | 3 Division of Neurosurgery, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont;
  • | 4 Department of Neurosurgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan; and
  • | 5 Department of Neurosurgery, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Restricted access

Purchase Now

USD  $45.00

JNS + Pediatrics - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $505.00

JNS + Pediatrics + Spine - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $600.00
Print or Print + Online

OBJECTIVE

Neurosurgery continues to be one of the medical specialties with the lowest representation of females in both the resident and faculty workforce. Currently, there are limited available data on the gender distribution of faculty and residents in Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)–accredited neurosurgery training programs. This information is critical to accurately measure the results of any effort to improve both the recruitment and retention of women in neurosurgery. The objective of the current study was to define the current gender distribution of faculty and residents in ACGME-accredited neurosurgery training programs.

METHODS

Data publicly available through institutional and supplemental websites for neurosurgical faculty and residents at ACGME-accredited programs were analyzed for the 2017–2018 academic year. Data collected for faculty included gender, age, year of residency graduation, academic rank, h-index, American Board of Neurological Surgery certification status, and leadership positions. Resident data included gender and postgraduate year of training.

RESULTS

Among the 109 ACGME-accredited neurosurgical residency programs included in this study, there were 1350 residents in training, of whom 18.2% were female and 81.8% were male. There are 1320 faculty, of whom 8.7% were female and 91.3% were male. Fifty-eight programs (53.2%) had both female faculty and residents, 35 programs (32.1%) had female residents and no female faculty, 4 programs (3.7%) had female faculty and no female residents, and 6 programs (5.5%) lacked both female residents and faculty. Six programs (5.5%) had incomplete data. Female faculty were younger, had lower h-indices, and were less likely to be board certified and attain positions of higher academic rank and leadership.

CONCLUSIONS

This study serves to provide a current snapshot of gender diversity in ACGME-accredited neurosurgery training programs. While there are still fewer female neurosurgeons achieving positions of higher academic rank and serving in leadership positions than male neurosurgeons, the authors’ findings suggest that this is likely due to the small number of women in the neurosurgical field who are the farthest away from residency graduation and serves to highlight the significant progress that has been made toward achieving greater gender diversity in the neurosurgical workforce.

ABBREVIATIONS

ABNS = American Board of Neurological Surgery; ACGME = Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.

Artist’s illustration of the classic mulberry appearance of a cavernoma. This illustration represents the Seven Cavernomas series by Dr. Michael Lawton, a collection of articles defining the tenets and techniques for the treatment of cavernous malformations, a taxonomy for classifying these lesions, and the nuances of their surgical approaches. Artist: Peter M. Lawrence. Used with permission from Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona. See the article by Garcia et al. (pp 671–682).

JNS + Pediatrics - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $505.00

JNS + Pediatrics + Spine - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $600.00

Contributor Notes

Correspondence Katherine E. Callahan: Robert Larner MD College of Medicine at the University of Vermont, Burlington, VT. katherine.callahan@med.uvm.edu.

INCLUDE WHEN CITING Published online January 29, 2021; DOI: 10.3171/2020.7.JNS192647.

Disclosures The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper.

  • 1

    ACGME Residents and Fellows by Sex and Specialty, 2017 . American Association of Medical Colleges . Accessed September 2, 2020. https://www.aamc.org/data/workforce/reports/492576/2-2-chart.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Table B-2. 2: Total Graduates by U.S. Medical School and Sex, 2013-2014 through 2017-2018. American Association of Medical Colleges . Accessed September 2, 2020. https://www.aamc.org/download/321532/data/factstableb2-2.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Table 1.3 Number and percentage of active physicians by sex and specialty. American Association of Medical Colleges . Accessed September 2, 2020. https://www.aamc.org/data/workforce/reports/492560/1-3-chart.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Agarwal N , White MD , Pannullo SC , Chambless LB . Analysis of national trends in neurosurgical resident attrition . J Neurosurg . 2019 ;131 (5 ):1668 1673 .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Lynch G , Nieto K , Puthenveettil S , et al. Attrition rates in neurosurgery residency: analysis of 1361 consecutive residents matched from 1990 to 1999 . J Neurosurg . 2015 ;122 (2 ):240 249 .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Butkus R , Serchen J , Moyer DV , et al. Achieving gender equity in physician compensation and career advancement: a position paper of the American College of Physicians . Ann Intern Med . 2018 ;168 (10 ):721 723 .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Dezsö CL , Ross DG . Does female representation in top management improve firm performance? A panel data investigation . Strateg Manage J . 2012 ;33 (9 ):1072 1089 .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Hossain M , Farooque OA , Momin MA , Almotairy O . Women in the boardroom and their impact on climate change related disclosure . Soc Responsib J . 2017 ;13 (4 ):828 855 .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Zhuwao S , Ngirande H , Ndlovu W , Setati ST . Gender diversity, ethnic diversity and employee performance in a South African higher education institution . SA J Hum Resour Manag . 2019 ;17 (4 ):a1061 .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Badal S. The business benefits of gender diversity. Gallup. January 20 , 2014 . Accessed September 25, 2020. https://www.gallup.com/workplace/236543/business-benefits-gender-diversity.aspx

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Abosch A , Rutka JT . Women in neurosurgery: inequality redux . J Neurosurg . 2018 ;129 (2 ):277 281 .

  • 12

    Spetzler RF . Progress of women in neurosurgery . Asian J Neurosurg . 2011 ;6 (1 ):6 12 .

  • 13

    Table C-2 . Residency Applicants from U.S. MD-Granting Medical Schools to ACGME-Accredited Programs by Specialty and Sex, 2019-2020. American Association of Medical Colleges 2019 Physician Data Book . November 12, 2020. Accessed September 25, 2020. https://www.aamc.org/system/files/2019-12/2019_FACTS_Table_C-2.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Durham SR , Donaldson K , Grady MS , Benzil DL . Analysis of the 1990-2007 neurosurgery residency match: does applicant gender affect neurosurgery match outcome? J Neurosurg . 2018 ;129 (2 ):282 289 .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Benzil DL , Abosch A , Germano I , et al. The future of neurosurgery: a white paper on the recruitment and retention of women in neurosurgery . J Neurosurg . 2008 ;109 (3 ):378 386 .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Steklacova A , Bradac O , de Lacy P , Benes V . E-WIN Project 2016: evaluating the current gender situation in neurosurgery across Europe—an interactive, multiple-level survey . World Neurosurg . 2017 ;104 :48 60 .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Girod S , Fassiotto M , Grewal D , et al. Reducing implicit gender leadership bias in academic medicine with an educational intervention . Acad Med . 2016 ;91 (8 ):1143 1150 .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Blumenthal KG , Huebner EM , Banerji A , et al. Sex differences in academic rank in allergy/immunology . J Allergy Clin Immunol . 2019 ;144 (6 ):1697 1702.e1 .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Dossani RA , Terrel D , Kosty JA , et al. Gender disparities in academic rank achievement in neurosurgery: a critical assessment . J Neurosurg . 2020 ;133 (6 ):1922 1927 .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Lautenberger DM , Raezer CL , Sloane RA . The State of Women in Academic Medicine: The Pipeline and Pathways to Leadership . Association of American Medical Colleges ; 2014 . Accessed September 25, 2020. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/women_science_medicine/_pdfs/the%20state%20of%20women%20in%20academic%20medicine%202013-2014%20final.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Mueller CM , Gaudilliere DK , Kin C , et al. Gender disparities in scholarly productivity of US academic surgeons . J Surg Res . 2016 ;203 (1 ):28 33 .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Sing DC , Jain D , Ouyang D . Gender trends in authorship of spine-related academic literature—a 39-year perspective . Spine J . 2017 ;17 (11 ):1749 1754 .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Statement on family and medical leave. American Board of Neurological Surgery . Accessed September 25, 2020. https://abns.org/family-and-medical-leave/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 74 74 74
Full Text Views 42 42 42
PDF Downloads 52 52 52
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0