Double-crescent sign as a predictor of chronic subdural hematoma recurrence following burr-hole surgery

Koichi Miki MD 1 , Hiroshi Abe MD, PhD 1 , Takashi Morishita MD, PhD 1 , Shuji Hayashi MD, PhD 2 , Kenji Yagi MD, PhD 1 , Hisatomi Arima MD, PhD 3 and Tooru Inoue MD, PhD 1
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  • 1 Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University Hospital and School of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka;
  • 2 Department of Neurosurgery, Hakujyuji Hospital, Fukuoka; and
  • 3 Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University Hospital and School of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan
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OBJECTIVE

Subdural hygroma has been reported as a causative factor in the development of a chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) following a head trauma and/or neurosurgical procedure. In some CSDH cases, the presence of a 2-layered space delineated by the same or similar density of CSF surrounded by a superficial, residual hematoma is seen on CT imaging after evacuation of the hematoma. The aims of the present study were to test the hypothesis that the double-crescent sign (DCS), a unique imaging finding described here, is associated with the postoperative recurrence of CSDH, and to investigate other factors that are related to CSDH recurrence.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed data from 278 consecutive patients who underwent single burr-hole surgery for CSDH between April 2012 and March 2017. The DCS was defined as a postoperative CT finding, characterized by the following 2 layers: a superficial layer demonstrating residual hematoma after evacuation of the CSDH, and a deep layer between the brain’s surface and the residual hematoma, depicted as a low-density space. Correlation of the recurrence of CSDH with the DCS was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression modeling. The authors also investigated other classic predictive factors including age, sex, past history of head injury, hematoma laterality, anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy administration, preoperative hematoma volume, postoperative residual hematoma volume, and postoperative brain reexpansion rate.

RESULTS

A total of 277 patients (320 hemispheres) were reviewed. Fifty (18.1%) of the 277 patients experienced recurrence of CSDH within 3 months of surgery. CSDH recurred within 3 months of surgery in 32 of the 104 hemispheres with a positive DCS. Multivariate logistic analyses revealed that the presence of the DCS (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.72–6.57, p < 0.001), large postoperative residual hematoma volume (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.24–6.71, p = 0.014), anticoagulant therapy (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.02–9.01, p = 0.046), and bilateral hematoma (OR 3.57, 95% CI 1.79–7.13, p < 0.001) were significant, independent predictors of CSDH recurrence.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, the authors report that detection of the DCS within 7 days of surgery is an independent predictive factor for CSDH recurrence. They therefore advocate that clinicians should carefully monitor patients for postoperative DCS and subsequent CSDH recurrence.

ABBREVIATIONS APTT = activated partial thromboplastin time; ASDH = acute subdural hematoma; CSDH = chronic subdural hematoma; DBC = dural border cell; DCS = double-crescent sign; HU = Hounsfield unit; JCS = Japan Coma Scale; POD = postoperative day; PRH = postoperative residual hematoma; PT-INR = prothrombin time–international normalized ratio; ROC-AUC = receiver operating characteristic–area under the curve.

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Contributor Notes

Correspondence Hiroshi Abe: Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan. neuroabe1972@gmail.com.

INCLUDE WHEN CITING Published online January 4, 2019; DOI: 10.3171/2018.8.JNS18805.

Disclosures Dr. Arima has received lecture fees from Bayer, Daiichi-Sankyo, and Takeda. Dr. Morishita has received honoraria from Boston Scientific and Medtronic as a consultant within the past 12 months.

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