Classification of transcranial sphenoidotomy techniques. From left to right: superior sphenoidotomy (SS, red) and type 1 lateral sphenoidotomy (LS1, blue); type 2 lateral sphenoidotomy (LS2, blue); and superolateral sphenoidotomy (SLS, green). II = optic nerve; III = oculomotor nerve; IV = trochlear nerve; V1 = ophthalmic nerve; V2 = maxillary nerve; V3 = mandibular nerve. See the article by Iwami et al. (pp 1658–1667).
The authors compared clinical results in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma who were treated with or without photodynamic therapy (PDT) using talaporfin sodium and semiconductor laser. The PDT group showed statistically better overall survival (27.4 months) than the control group (22.1 months). Progression-free survival was also longer in the PDT group (19.6 months) than the control group (9.0 months). A randomized clinical trial is warranted, and PDT may become the standard treatment for glioblastoma in the future.
Authors:Oliver D. Mrowczynski, Russell A. Payne, Alexandre J. Bourcier, Christine Y. Mau, Becky Slagle-Webb, Ganesh Shenoy, Achuthamangalam B. Madhankumar, Stephan B. Abramson, Darren Wolfe, Kimberly S. Harbaugh, Elias B. Rizk and James R. Connor
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are devastating malignancies with an immense opportunity for advancement in therapeutic options. The work described in this paper was performed in an effort to help people suffering from these tumors and represents a first step toward utilizing targeted intratumoral therapy as a novel treatment strategy.
Authors:Roshan S. Prabhu, Katherine R. Miller, Anthony L. Asher, John H. Heinzerling, Benjamin J. Moeller, Scott P. Lankford, Robert J. McCammon, Carolina E. Fasola, Kirtesh R. Patel, Robert H. Press, Ashley L. Sumrall, Matthew C. Ward and Stuart H. Burri
Authors:Gary K. Steinberg, Douglas Kondziolka, Lawrence R. Wechsler, L. Dade Lunsford, Anthony S. Kim, Jeremiah N. Johnson, Damien Bates, Gene Poggio, Casey Case, Michael McGrogan, Ernest W. Yankee and Neil E. Schwartz
Authors:Dong-Hun Kang, Byung Moon Kim, Ji Hoe Heo, Hyo Suk Nam, Young Dae Kim, Yang-Ha Hwang, Yong-Won Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Dong Joon Kim, Hyo Sung Kwak, Hong Gee Roh, Young-Jun Lee and Sang Heum Kim
Endovascular thrombectomy has been a standard treatment for acute large vessel occlusion strokes since multiple randomized controlled trials confirmed its efficacy. Together with a faster and higher grade of recanalization, complete recanalization with a first-pass stent retriever thrombectomy (first-pass recanalization [FPR]) has been suggested as an independent predictor of a good outcome. Here, the authors hypothesized that FPR was also associated with good outcomes in contact aspiration thrombectomy and performed an analysis to test that hypothesis.
Authors:Wei-Hsin Wang, Stefan Lieber, Roger Neves Mathias, Xicai Sun, Paul A. Gardner, Carl H. Snyderman, Eric W. Wang and Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda
In this paper the authors investigated the surgical anatomy of the foramen lacerum, a gap at the base of the skull formed by the incomplete confluence of the sphenoid, petrous, and clival bones. It has an intimate relation with the internal carotid artery and sits at the crossroad of endoscopic endonasal approaches to the middle and posterior cranial fossa. The authors describe key anatomical concepts that make surgery in this region more accurate and effective.
Authors:Alessa Schütz, Michael Murek, Lennart Henning Stieglitz, Corrado Bernasconi, Sonja Vulcu, Jürgen Beck, Andreas Raabe and Philippe Schucht
Bone flap resorption (BFR) is a frequent complication of autologous cranioplasty (AC), resulting in disfiguring defects and loss of bony coverage of the brain, but the pathophysiology of BFR remains unclear, and no preventive measures have been identified to date. This study investigates risk factors for BFR after AC. The results of the analysis show that hypertensive patients treated with ACE inhibitors demonstrate a lower rate of BFR than patients treated with other hypertensive medications and nonhypertensive patients.
Authors:Debayan Dasgupta, Linda D’Antona, Daniel Aimone Cat, Ahmed K. Toma, Carmel Curtis, Laurence D. Watkins and Lewis Thorne
In this study, the authors implemented two significant changes to the insertion of external ventricular drains (EVDs), one of the most common emergency neurosurgical procedures: 1) a standardized perioperative care bundle, and 2) simulation workshops to improve surgical technique. These changes showed significant improvements in accuracy of EVD placement, reduced infections by almost half, and decreased rates of displacement, all major sources of morbidity and mortality, thereby significantly improving outcomes in a lasting and reproducible fashion.
Authors:Kadhaya David Muballe, Constance R. Sewani-Rusike, Benjamin Longo-Mbenza and Jehu Iputo
This study was performed to correlate the oxidative stress imbalance and inflammatory changes in patients with traumatic brain injury and to relate these to the clinical outcomes. This may help identify the independent biomarker predictors of recovery in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. From this study clinicians may gain an understanding of the ways in which diagnosis, prevention, modulation, and intervention in traumatic brain injury will minimize or avert the effects of oxidative stress and the inflammatory response and may lead to improved clinical outcomes.