The aim of this study was to implement cumulative summation (CUSUM) analysis as an early-warning detection and quality assurance system for preclinical testing of the iSYS1 novel robotic trajectory guidance system.
Anatomically accurate 3D-printed skull phantoms were created for 3 patients who underwent implantation of 21 stereoelectroencephalography electrodes by surgeons using the current standard of care (frameless technique). Implantation schema were recreated using the iSYS1 system, and paired accuracy measures were compared with the previous frameless implantations. Entry point, target point, and implantation angle accuracy were measured on postimplantation CT scans. CUSUM analysis was undertaken prospectively.
The iSYS1 trajectory guidance system significantly improved electrode entry point accuracies from 1.90 ± 0.96 mm (mean ± SD) to 0.76 ± 0.57 mm (mean ± SD) without increasing implantation risk. CUSUM analysis was successful as a continuous measure of surgical performance and acted as an early-warning detection system. The surgical learning curve, although minimal, showed improvement after insertion of the eighth electrode.
The iSYS1 trajectory guidance system did not show any increased risk during phantom preclinical testing when used by neurosurgeons who had no experience with its use. CUSUM analysis is a simple technique that can be applied to all stages of the IDEAL (idea, development, exploration, assessment) framework as an extra patient safety mechanism. Further clinical trials are required to prove the efficacy of the device.
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