The authors had previously shown that 3-T intraoperative MRI (ioMRI) detects residual tumor tissue during low-grade glioma and that it helps to increase the extent of resection. In a proportion of their cases, however, the ioMRI disclosed T2-hyperintense areas at the tumor resection border after the initial resection attempt and prompted a differential diagnosis between residual tumor and nontumoral changes. To guide this differential diagnosis the authors used intraoperative long-TE single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy (ioMRS) and tested the correlation of these findings with findings from pathological examination of resected tissue.
Patients who were undergoing surgery for hemispheric or insular WHO Grade II gliomas and were found to have T2 changes around the resection cavity at the initial ioMRI were prospectively examined with ioMRS and biopsies were taken from corresponding localizations. In 14 consecutive patients, the ioMRS diagnosis in 20 voxels of interest was tested against the histopathological diagnosis. Intraoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (ioDWI) was also performed, as a part of the routine imaging, to rule out surgically induced changes, which could also appear as T2 hyperintensity.
Presence of tumor was documented in 14 (70%) of the 20 T2-hyperintense areas by histopathological examination. The sensitivity of ioMRS for identifying residual tumor was 85.7%, the specificity was 100%, the positive predictive value was 100%, and the negative predictive value was 75%. The specificity of ioDWI for surgically induced changes was high (100%), but the sensitivity was only 60%.
This is the first clinical series to indicate that ioMRS can be used to differentiate residual tumor from nontumoral changes around the resection cavity, with high sensitivity and specificity.
Abbreviations used in this paper:Cho = choline; Cr = creatine; DWI = diffusion-weighted imaging; GTR = gross-total resection; ioDWI = intraoperative DWI; ioMRI = intraoperative MRI; ioMRS = intraoperative long-TE single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy; LGG = low-grade glioma; NAA = N-acetyl-aspartate; VOI = voxel of interest.
Address correspondence to: Koray Özduman, M.D., Department of Neurosurgery, Acıbadem University School of Medicine, Inönü Caddesi, Okur Sokak No. 20, Kozyatağı, Istanbul 34742, Turkey. email: email@example.com.
Please include this information when citing this paper: published online February 22, 2013; DOI: 10.3171/2013.1.JNS111561.
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