Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitors are currently based on fluid-filled, strain gauge, or fiberoptic technology. Capacitive sensors have minimal zero drift and energy requirements, allowing long-term implantation and telemetric interrogation; their application to neurosurgery has only occasionally been reported. The aim of this study was to undertake a preliminary in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a capacitive telemetric implantable ICP monitor.
Four devices were tested in air- and saline-filled pressure chambers; long-term capacitance-pressure curves were obtained. Devices implanted in a gel phantom and in a piglet were placed in a 3-T MR unit to evaluate MR compatibility. Four devices were implanted in a piglet neonatal hydrocephalus model; output was compared with ICP obtained through fluid-filled transduction and a strain-gauge ICP monitor.
The capacitance-pressure relationship was constant over 4 weeks, suggesting minimal zero drift during this period. There were no temperature changes around the monitor. Signal loss at the sensor was minimal in both the phantom and the piglet. Over 114,000 measurements were obtained; the difference between mean capacitive ICP and fluid-transduced ICP was 1.8 ± 1.42 mm Hg. The correlation between ICP from the capacitive sensor and fluid-filled transducer (r = 0.97, p < 0.0001) or strain-gauge monitor (r = 0.99, p < 0.0001) was excellent. In vivo monitoring was restricted to 48 hours due to problems with robustness in the clinical environment.
This preliminary study demonstrates minimal long-term zero drift in vitro, good MR compatibility, and good correlation with other methods of ICP monitoring in vivo in the short term. Further long-term in vivo study is required.
Abbreviations used in this paper: ICP = intracranial pressure; PCB = printed circuit board; VAD = ventricular access device.
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