A 3-tier classification of cerebral arteriovenous malformations

Clinical article

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  • Division of Neurological Surgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona
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Object

The authors propose a 3-tier classification for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The classification is based on the original 5-tier Spetzler-Martin grading system, and reflects the treatment paradigm for these lesions. The implications of this modification in the literature are explored.

Methods

Class A combines Grades I and II AVMs, Class B are Grade III AVMs, and Class C combines Grades IV and V AVMs. Recommended management is surgery for Class A AVMs, multimodality treatment for Class B, and observation for Class C, with exceptions to the latter including recurrent hemorrhages and progressive neurological deficits. To evaluate whether combining grades is warranted from the perspective of surgical outcomes, the 3-tier system was applied to 1476 patients from 7 surgical series in which results were stratified according to Spetzler-Martin grades.

Results

Pairwise comparisons of individual Spetzler-Martin grades in the series analyzed showed the fewest significant differences (p < 0.05) in outcomes between Grades I and II AVMs and between Grades IV and V AVMs. In the pooled data analysis, significant differences in outcomes were found between all grades except IV and V (p = 0.38), and the lowest relative risks were found between Grades I and II (1.066) and between Grades IV and V (1.095). Using the pooled data, the predictive accuracies for surgical outcomes of the 5-tier and 3-tier systems were equivalent (receiver operating characteristic curve area 0.711 and 0.713, respectively).

Conclusions

Combining Grades I and II AVMs and combining Grades IV and V AVMs is justified in part because the differences in surgical results between these respective pairs are small. The proposed 3-tier classification of AVMs offers simplification of the Spetzler-Martin system, provides a guide to treatment, and is predictive of outcome. The revised classification not only simplifies treatment recommendations; by placing patients into 3 as opposed to 5 groups, statistical power is markedly increased for series comparisons.

Abbreviations used in this paper: AVM = arteriovenous malformation; mRS = modified Rankin Scale; ROC = receiver operating characteristic; RR = relative risk.

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Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to: Robert F. Spetzler, M.D., c/o Neuroscience Publications, Barrow Neurological Institute, 350 West Thomas Road, Phoenix, Arizona 85013. email: neuropub@chw.edu.

Please include this information when citing this paper: published online October 8, 2010; DOI: 10.3171/2010.8.JNS10663.

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