In this study the authors measured the effect of auditory feedback during image-guided surgery (IGS) in a phantom model and in a clinical setting. In the phantom setup, advanced IGS with complementary auditory feedback was compared with results obtained with 2 routine forms of IGS, either with an on-screen image display or with imageinjection via a microscope. The effect was measured by means of volumetric resection assessments. The authors also present their first clinical data concerning the effects of complementary auditory feedback on instrument handling during image-guided neurosurgery. When using image-injection through the microscope for navigation, however, resection quality was significantly worse. In the clinical portion of the study, the authors performed resections of cerebral mass lesions in 6 patients with the aid of auditory feedback. Instrument tip speeds were slightly (although significantly) influenced by this feedback during resection. Overall, the participating neurosurgeons reported that the auditory feedback helped in decision-making during resection without negatively influencing instrument use. Postoperative volumetric imaging studies revealed resection rates of ≥ 95% when IGS with auditory feedback was used. There was only a minor amount of brain shift, and postoperative resection volumes corresponded well with the preoperative intentions of the neurosurgeon. Although the results of phantom surgery with auditory feedback revealed no significant effect on resection quality or extent, auditory cues may help prevent damage to eloquent brain structures.
Abbreviations used in this paper: HUD = heads-up display; IGS = image-guided surgery.
Address correspondence to: Peter A. Woerdeman, M.D., University Medical Center Utrecht (G03.124), Department of Neurosurgery, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. email: p.a.
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