Destructive procedures for the treatment of nonmalignant pain: a structured literature review

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Neurological Surgery, and
  • 2 School of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon
Restricted access

Purchase Now

USD  $45.00

JNS + Pediatrics - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $505.00

JNS + Pediatrics + Spine - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $600.00
Print or Print + Online

Object

Nonmalignant pain has been treated in the past century with ablative, or more appropriately, destructive procedures. Although individual outcomes for these procedures have previously been described in the literature, to the authors' knowledge this is the first comprehensive and systematic review on this topic.

Methods

A US National Library of Medicine PubMed search was conducted for the following ablative procedures: cingulotomy, cordotomy, DREZ (also input as dorsal root entry zone), ganglionectomy, mesencephalotomy, myelotomy, neurotomy, rhizotomy, sympathectomy, thalamotomy, and tractotomy. Articles related to pain resulting from malignancy and those not in peer-reviewed journals were excluded. In reviewing pertinent articles, focus was placed on patient number, outcome, and follow-up.

Results

A total of 146 articles was included in the review. The large majority of studies (131) constituted Class III evidence. Eleven Class I and 4 Class II studies were found, of which nearly all (13 of 15) evaluated radiofrequency rhizotomies for different pain origins, including lumbar facet syndrome, cervical facet pain, and Type I or typical trigeminal neuralgia. Overall, support for ablative procedures for nonmalignant pain is derived almost entirely from Class III evidence; despite a long history of use in neurosurgery, the evidence supporting destructive procedures for benign pain conditions remains limited.

Conclusions

Newly designed prospective standardized studies are required to define surgical indications and outcomes for these procedures, to provide more systematic review, and to advance the field.

Abbreviations used in this paper: BPA = brachial plexus avulsion; DREZ = dorsal root entry zone; LFS = lumbar facet syndrome; RCT = randomized controlled trial; SCI = spinal cord injury; TN = trigeminal neuralgia; VAS = visual analog scale.

JNS + Pediatrics - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $505.00

JNS + Pediatrics + Spine - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $600.00

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to: Kim J. Burchiel, M.D., Department of Neurological Surgery, Oregon Health & Science University, CH8N, 3303 Southwest Bond Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97239. email: burchiek@ohsu.edu.
  • 1

    Abdelaziz OS, & Cosgrove GR, Stereotactic cingulotomy for the treatment of chronic pain. Burchiel KJ: Surgical Management of Pain New York, Thieme Medical Publishers, 2002. 812820

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Amano K, , Kawamura H, , Tanikawa T, , Kawabatake H, , Notani M, & Iseki H, : Long-term follow-up study of rostral mesencephalic reticulotomy for pain relief—report of 34 cases. Appl Neurophysiol 49:105111, 1986

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Amano K, , Kitamura K, , Sano K, & Sedino H: Relief of intractable pain from neurosurgical point of view with reference to present limits and clinical indications—a review of 100 consecutive cases. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 16:141153, 1976

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Ballantine HT, , Cosgrove GR, & Giriunsa IE, Surgical treatment of intractable physchiatric illness and chronic pain by stereotactic cingulotomy. Schmidek HH, & Sweet WH: Operative Neurosurgical Techniques: Indications, Methods, and Results Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1995. 14231430

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Ballantyne JC, & LaForge KS: Opioid dependence and addiction during opioid treatment of chronic pain. Pain 129:235255, 2007

  • 6

    Barlocher CB, , Krauss JK, & Seiler RW: Kryorhizotomy: an alternative technique for lumbar medial branch rhizotomy in lumbar facet syndrome. J Neurosurg 98:1420, 2003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Barnsley L: Percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy for chronic neck pain: outcomes in a series of consecutive patients. Pain Med 6:282286, 2005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Bederson JB, & Wilson CB: Evaluation of microvascular decompression and partial sensory rhizotomy in 252 cases of trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 71:359367, 1989

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Benson K, & Hartz AJ: A comparison of observational studies and randomized, controlled trials. N Engl J Med 342:18781886, 2000

  • 10

    Broager B: Commissural myelotomy. Surg Neurol 2:7174, 1974

  • 11

    Broager B, & Olesen K, Psychosurgery in sixty-three cases of open cingulectomy and fourteen cases of bifrontal prehypothalamic cryolesion. Hitchcock E, , Laitinen L, & Vaernet K: Psychosurgery Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas, 1972. 253257

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Brodal A: Central course of afferent fibers for pain in facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. Clinical observation. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 57:292307, 1947

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Broggi G, , Ferroli P, , Franzini A, & Galosi L: The role of surgery in the treatment of typical and atypical facial pain. Neurol Sci 26:2 Suppl S95S100, 2005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Broggi G, , Franzini A, , Lasio G, , Giorgi C, & Servello D: Longterm results of percutaneous retrogasserian thermorhizotomy for “essential” trigeminal neuralgia: considerations in 1000 consecutive patients. Neurosurgery 26:783787, 1990

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Burchiel K: Surgical Management of Pain New York, Thieme, 2002

  • 16

    Burchiel KJ: A new classification for facial pain. Neurosurgery 53:11641167, 2003

  • 17

    Burchiel KJ: Percutaneous retrogasserian glycerol rhizolysis in the management of trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 69:361366, 1988

  • 18

    Campbell JN, , Solomon CT, & James CS: The Hopkins experience with lesions of the dorsal horn (Nashold's operation) for pain from avulsion of the brachial plexus. Appl Neurophysiol 51:170174, 1988

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Cepero R, , Miller RH, & Bressler KL: Long-term results of sphenopalatine ganglioneurectomy for facial pain. Am J Otolaryngol 8:171174, 1987

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Choi CR, & Umbach W: Combined stereotaxic surgery for relief of intractable pain. Neurochirurgia (Stuttg) 20:8487, 1977

  • 21

    Coffey RJ, & Lozano AM: Neurostimulation for chronic noncancer pain: an evaluation of the clinical evidence and recommendations for future trial designs. J Neurosurg 105:175189, 2006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Concato J, , Shah N, & Horwitz RI: Randomized, controlled trials, observational studies, and the hierarchy of research designs. N Engl J Med 342:18871892, 2000

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Cowie RA, & Hitchcock ER: The late results of antero-lateral cordotomy for pain relief. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 64:3950, 1982

  • 24

    Crue BL, , Carregal EJA, & Felsoory A: Percutanous stereotactic radiofrequency trigeminal tractotomy with neurophysiological recording. Stereotact Funct. Neurosurg 34:389397, 1972

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Diemath HE, , Heppner F, & Walker AE: Anterolateral chordotomy for relief of pain. Postgrad Med 29:485495, 1961

  • 26

    Dougherty PM, , Lee J, , Dimitrou T, & Lenz FA, Medial thalamotomy. Burchiel KJ: Surgical Management of Pain New York, Thieme Medical Publishers, 2002. 812820

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Dreval ON: Ultrasonic DREZ-operations for treatment of pain due to brachial plexus avulsion. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 122:7681, 1993

  • 28

    Dreyfuss P, , Halbrook B, , Pauza K, , Joshi A, , McLarty J, & Bogduk N: Efficacy and validity of radiofrequency neurotomy for chronic lumbar zygapophysial joint pain. Spine 25:12701277, 2000

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Dubuisson D: Treatment of occipital neuralgia by partial posterior rhizotomy at C1-3. J Neurosurg 82:581586, 1995

  • 30

    Echols DH: Sensory rhizotomy following operation for ruptured intervertebral disc. A review of 62 cases. J Neurosurg 31:335338, 1969

  • 31

    Edgar RE, , Best LG, , Quail PA, & Obert AD: Computer-assisted DREZ microcoagulation: posttraumatic spinal deafferentation pain. J Spinal Disord 6:4856, 1993

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Eriksen J, , Sjogren P, , Bruera E, , Ekholm O, & Rasmussen NK: Critical issues on opioids in chronic non-cancer pain: an epidemiological study. Pain 125:172179, 2006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Faillace LA, , Allen RP, , McQueen JD, & Northrup B: Cognitive deficits from bilateral cingulotomy for intractable pain in man. Dis Nerv Syst 32:171175, 1971

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Fedder SL: T2-ganglionectomy via limited costotransversectomy for minor causalgia. Spine 15:269270, 1990

  • 35

    Foltz EL, & White LE: The role of rostral cingulumotomy in “pain” relief. Int J Neurol 6:353373, 1968

  • 36

    Frank S, , Kieburtz K, , Holloway R, & Kim SYH: What is the risk of sham surgery in Parkinson disease clinical trials? A review of published reports. Neurology 65:11011103, 2005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Frankel SA, & Prokop JD: Value of cordotomy for the relief of pain. N Engl J Med 264:971974, 1961

  • 38

    Freed CR, , Greene PE, , Breeze RE, , Tsai WY, , DuMouchel W, & Kao R, : Transplantation of embryonic dopamine neurons for severe Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med 344:710719, 2001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39

    Freeman TB, , Vawter DE, , Leaverton PE, , Godbold JH, , Hauser RA, & Goetz CG, : Use of placebo surgery in controlled trials of a cellular-based therapy for Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med 341:988992, 1999

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40

    French LA: High cervical tractotomy: technique and results. Clin Neurosurg 21:239245, 1974

  • 41

    Friedman AH, & Bullitt E: Dorsal root entry zone lesions in the treatment of pain following brachial plexus avulsion, spinal cord injury and herpes zoster. Appl Neurophysiol 51:164169, 1988

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42

    Friedman AH, & Nashold BS Jr: DREZ lesions for relief of pain related to spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg 65:465469, 1986

  • 43

    Gallagher J, , Petriccione di Vadi PL, , Wedley JR, , Hamann W, , Ryan P, & Chikanza I, : Radiofrequency facet joint denervation in the treatment of low back pain: a prospective controlled double-blind study to assess its efficacy. Pain Clin 7:193198, 1994

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44

    Geurts JWM, , van Wijk RMAW, , Wynne HJ, , Hammink E, , Buskens E, & Lousberg R, : Radiofrequency lesioning of dorsal root ganglia for chronic lumbosacral radicular pain: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Lancet 361:2126, 2003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45

    Govind J, , King W, , Bailey B, & Bogduk N: Radiofrequency neurotomy for the treatment of third occipital headache. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 74:8893, 2003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46

    Grant FC, & Wood FA: Experiences with cordotomy. Clin Neurosurg 5:3865, 1957

  • 47

    Gybels J, & Tasker R, Supratentorial neurosurgery for the treatment of pain. McMahon S, & Koltzenberg M: Wall and Melzack's Textbook of Pain ed 5 London, Elsevier, 2006. 553561

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48

    Helfant MH, , Leksell L, & Strang RR: Experiences with intractable pain treated by stereotaxic mesencephalotomy. Acta Chir Scand 129:573580, 1965

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49

    Hitchock ER, & Schvarcz JR: Stereotaxic trigeminal tractotomy for post-herpetic facial pain. J Neurosurg 37:412417, 1972

  • 50

    Hitchcock ER, & Teixeira MJ: A comparison of results from center-median and basal thalamotomies for pain. Surg Neurol 15:341351, 1981

  • 51

    Hooten WM, , Martin DP, & Huntoon MA: Radiofrequency neurotomy for low back pain: evidence-based procedural guidelines. Pain Med 6:129138, 2005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52

    Hosobuchi Y: The majority of unmyelinated afferent axons in human ventral roots probably conduct pain. Pain 8:167180, 1980

  • 53

    Hosobuchi Y, & Rutkin B: Descending trigeminal tractotomy. Neurophysiological approach. Arch Neurol 25:115125, 1971

  • 54

    Hurt RW, & Ballantine HT Jr: Stereotactic anterior cingulate lesions for persistent pain: a report on 68 cases. Clin Neurosurg 21:334351, 1974

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55

    Ishijima B, , Shimoji K, , Shimizu H, , Takahashi H, & Suzuki I: Lesions of spinal and trigeminal dorsal root entry zone for deafferentation pain. Experience of 35 cases. Appl Neurophysiol 51:175187, 1988

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56

    Jansen J: Surgical treatment of non-responsive cervicogenic headache. Clin Exp Rheumatol 18:S67S70, 2000

  • 57

    Jeanmonod D, , Magnin M, & Morel A, Medial thalamotomycommentary. Burchiel K: Surgical Management of Pain New York, Thieme Medical Publishers, 2002. 802804

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58

    Jeanmonod D, , Magnin M, & Morel A: Thalamus and neurogenic pain: physiological, anatomical and clinical data. Neuroreport 4:475478, 1993

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59

    Jirásek A: The Surgery of Pain Prague, New Horizons, 1962

  • 60

    Kanpolat Y: Percutaneous cordotomy, tractotomy, and midline myelotomy: minimally invasive stereotactic pain procedures. Semin Neurosurg 15:203219, 2004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61

    Kanpolat Y, , Savas A, , Akyar S, & Cosman E: Percutaneous computed tomography-guided spinal destructive procedures for pain control. Neurosurg Q 14:229238, 2004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62

    Kanpolat Y, , Savas A, , Batay F, & Sinav A: Computed tomography-guided trigeminal tractotomy-nucleotomy in the management of vagoglossopharyngeal and geniculate neuralgias. Neurosurgery 43:484490, 1998

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63

    Kanpolat Y, , Savas A, , Bekar A, & Berk C: Percutaneous controlled radiofrequency trigeminal rhizotomy for the treatment of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia: 25-year experience with 1,600 patients. Neurosurgery 48:524534, 2001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64

    Kato S, , Otsuki T, , Yamamoto T, , Iwasaki Y, & Yoshimoto T: Retrograde adriamycin sensory ganglionectomy: novel approach for the treatment of intractable pain. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 54–55:8689, 1990

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65

    Kudo T, , Yoshii N, , Shimizu S, , Aikawa S, , Nishioka S, & Nakahama H: [Stereotaxic thalamotomy for pain relief.]. Seishin Igaku Kenkyusho Gyosekishu 15:1530, 1968. (Jpn)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66

    Kumagai Y, , Shimoji K, , Honma T, , Uchiyama S, , Ishijima B, & Hokari T, : Problems related to dorsal root entry zone lesions. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 115:7178, 1992

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67

    Kunc Z: Treatment of essential neuralgia of the 9th nerve by selective tractotomy. J Neurosurg 23:494500, 1965

  • 68

    Laitinen L, & Vilkki J, Stereotactic ventral anterior cingulotomy in some psychological disorders. Hitchcock E, , Laitinen L, & Vaernet K: Psychosurgery Springfield, Charles C Thomas, 1972. 242252

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69

    Le Beau J: Anterior cingulectomy in man. J Neurosurg 11:268276, 1954

  • 70

    Leclaire R, , Fortin L, , Lambert R, , Bergeron YM, & Rossignol M: Radiofrequency facet joint denervation in the treatment of low back pain: a placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess efficacy. Spine 26:14111417, 2001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71

    Lende RA, , Kirsch WM, & Druckman R: Relief of facial pain after combined removal of precentral and postcentral cortex. J Neurosurg 34:537543, 1971

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72

    Levy WJ, , Nutkiewicz A, , Ditmore QM, & Watts C: Laser-induced dorsal root entry zone lesions for pain control. Report of three cases. J Neurosurg 59:884886, 1983

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73

    Liberson WT, , Voris HC, & Uematsu S: Recording of somatosensory evoked potentials during mesencephalotomy for intractable pain. Confin Neurol 32:185194, 1970

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74

    Loeser JD: Dorsal rhizotomy for the relief of chronic pain. J Neurosurg 36:745750, 1972

  • 75

    Lord SM, , Barnsley L, , Wallis BJ, , McDonald GJ, & Bogduk N: Percutaneous radio-frequency neurotomy for chronic cervical zygapophyseal-joint pain. N Engl J Med 335:17211726, 1996

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76

    Lozano AM, , Vanderlinden G, , Bachoo R, & Rothbart P: Microsurgical C-2 ganglionectomy for chronic intractable occipital pain. J Neurosurg 89:359365, 1998

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77

    Mailis A, & Furlan A: Sympathectomy for neuropathic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD002918, 2003

  • 78

    McDonald GJ, , Lord SM, & Bogduk N: Long-term follow-up of patients treated with cervical radiofrequency neurotomy for chronic neck pain. Neurosurgery 45:6168, 1999

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79

    Murali R, & Rovit RL: Are peripheral neurectomies of value in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia? An analysis of new cases and cases involving previous radiofrequency gasserian thermocoagulation. J Neurosurg 85:435437, 1996

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80

    Murphy JP: Occipital neurectomy in the treatment of headache. Results in 30 cases. Md State Med J 18:6266, 1969

  • 81

    Nashold BS Jr, & Bullitt E: Dorsal root entry zone lesions to control central pain in paraplegics. J Neurosurg 55:414419, 1981

  • 82

    Nashold BS Jr, & Ostdahl RH: Dorsal root entry zone lesions for pain relief. J Neurosurg 51:5969, 1979

  • 83

    Nashold BS Jr, , Vieira J, & el-Naggar AO: Pain and spinal cysts in paraplegia: treatment by drainage and DREZ operation. Br J Neurosurg 4:327335, 1990

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 84

    Niizuma H, , Kwak R, , Ikeda S, , Ohyama H, , Suzuki J, & Saso S: Follow-up results of centromedian thalamotomy for central pain. Appl Neurophysiol 45:324325, 1982

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85

    North RB, , Kidd DH, , Campbell JN, & Long DM: Dorsal root ganglionectomy for failed back surgery syndrome: a 5-year follow-up study. J Neurosurg 74:236242, 1991

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86

    Obrador S, & Bravo G: Thalamic lesions for the treatment of facial neuralgias. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 23:351352, 1960. (Abstract)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87

    Oh WS, & Shim JC: A randomized controlled trial of radiofrequency denervation of the ramus communicans nerve for chronic discogenic low back pain. Clin J Pain 20:5560, 2004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 88

    Onofrio BM, & Campa HK: Evaluation of rhizotomy. Review of 12 years' experience. J Neurosurg 36:751755, 1972

  • 89

    Osgood CP, , Dujovny M, , Faille R, & Abassy M: Microsurgical lumbosacral ganglionectomy, anatomic rationale, and surgical results. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 35:197204, 1976

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 90

    Oturai AB, , Jensen K, , Eriksen J, & Madsen F: Neurosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia: comparison of alcohol block, neurectomy, and radiofrequency coagulation. Clin J Pain 12:311315, 1996

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91

    Pevsner Y, , Shabat S, , Catz A, , Folman Y, & Gepstein R: The role of radiofrequency in the treatment of mechanical pain of spinal origin. Eur Spine J 12:602605, 2003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92

    Pickett GE, , Bisnaire D, & Ferguson GG: Percutaneous retrogasserian glycerol rhizotomy in the treatment of tic douloureux associated with multiple sclerosis. Neurosurgery 56:537545, 2005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 93

    Pieper DR, , Dickerson J, & Hassenbusch SJ: Percutaneous retrogasserian glycerol rhizolysis for treatment of chronic intractable cluster headaches: long-term results. Neurosurgery 46:363370, 2000

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94

    Pillay PK, & Hassenbusch SJ: Bilateral MRI-guided stereotactic cingulotomy for intractable pain. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 59:3338, 1992

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95

    Pollock BE, & Ecker RD: A prospective cost-effectiveness study of trigeminal neuralgia surgery. Clin J Pain 21:317322, 2005

  • 96

    Porter RW, , Hohmann GW, , Bors E, & French JD: Cordotomy for pain following cauda equina injury. Arch Surg 92:765770, 1966

  • 97

    Powers SK, , Adams JE, , Edwards MS, , Boggan JE, & Hosobuchi Y: Pain relief from dorsal root entry zone lesions made with argon and carbon dioxide microsurgical lasers. J Neurosurg 61:841847, 1984

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 98

    Powers SK, , Barbaro NM, & Levy RM: Pain control with laserproduced dorsal root entry zone lesions. Appl Neurophysiol 51:243254, 1988

  • 99

    Prestor B: Microsurgical junctional DREZ coagulation for treatment of deafferentation pain syndromes. Surg Neurol 56:259265, 2001

  • 100

    Preventive Services Task Force: Guide to Clinical Preventive Services: Report of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force ed 2 Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1996

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 101

    Probst C: Microsurgical cordotomy in 20 patients with epi-/intradural fibrosis following operation for lumbar disc herniation. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 107:3036, 1990

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102

    Quinn JH, & Weil T: Trigeminal neuralgia: treatment by repetitive peripheral neurectomy. Supplemental report. J Oral Surg 33:591595, 1975

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103

    Raskind R: Analytical review of open cordotomy. Int Surg 51:226231, 1969

  • 104

    Raslan AM, , McCartney S, & Burchiel KJ: Management of chronic severe pain: cerebral neuromodulatory and neuroablative approaches. Acta Neurochir Suppl 97:1726, 2007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 105

    Raslan AM, , McCartney S, & Burchiel KJ: Management of chronic severe pain: spinal neuromodulatory and neuroablative approaches. Acta Neurochir Suppl 97:3341, 2007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 106

    Rath SA, , Braun V, , Soliman N, , Antoniadis G, & Richter HP: Results of DREZ coagulations for pain related to plexus lesions, spinal cord injuries and postherpetic neuralgia. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 138:364369, 1996

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 107

    Richardson DE: Thalamotomy for intractable pain. Confin Neurol 29:139145, 1967

  • 108

    Richter HP, & Seitz K: Dorsal root entry zone lesions for the control of deafferentation pain: experiences in ten patients. Neurosurgery 15:956959, 1984

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 109

    Rosomoff HL: Bilateral percutaneous cervical radiofrequency cordotomy. J Neurosurg 31:4146, 1969

  • 110

    Samii M, , Bear-Henney S, , Ludemann W, , Tatagiba M, & Blomer U: Treatment of refractory pain after brachial plexus avulsion with dorsal root entry zone lesions. Neurosurgery 48:12691277, 2001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 111

    Samii M, & Moringlane JR: Thermocoagulation of the dorsal root entry zone for the treatment of intractable pain. Neurosurgery 15:953955, 1984

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 112

    Sanders M, & Zuurmond WW: Efficacy of sphenopalatine ganglion blockade in 66 patients suffering from cluster headache: a 12- to 70-month follow-up evaluation. J Neurosurg 87:876880, 1997

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 113

    Sapir DA, & Gorup JM: Radiofrequency medial branch neurotomy in litigant and nonlitigant patients with cervical whiplash: a prospective study. Spine 26:E268E273, 2001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 114

    Schvarcz JR: Postherpetic craniofacial dysaesthesiae: their management by stereotaxic trigeminal nucleotomy. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 38:6572, 1977

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 115

    Schvarcz JR: Spinal cord stereotactic techniques re trigeminal nucleotomy and extralemniscal myelotomy. Appl Neurophysiol 41:99112, 1978

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 116

    Schvarcz JR: Stereotactic trigeminal tractotomy. Confin Neurol 37:7377, 1975

  • 117

    Scoville WB: Extradural spinal sensory rhizotomy. J Neurosurg 25:9495, 1966

  • 118

    Scrivani SJ, , Keith DA, , Mathews ES, & Kaban LB: Percutaneous stereotactic differential radiofrequency thermal rhizotomy for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 57:104112, 1999

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 119

    Sharma T: Abolition of opiate hunger in humans following bilateral anterior cingulotomy. Tex Med 70:4952, 1974

  • 120

    Shieff C, & Nashold BS Jr: Stereotactic mesencephalic tractotomy for thalamic pain. Neurol Res 9:101104, 1987

  • 121

    Shieff C, & Nashold BS Jr: Thalamic pain and stereotactic mesencephalotomy. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien) 42:239242, 1988

  • 122

    Siegfried J: 500 Percutaneous thermocoagulations of the Gasserian ganglion for trigeminal pain. Surg Neurol 8:126131, 1977

  • 123

    Sindou M, , Mertens P, & Wael M: Microsurgical DREZotomy for pain due to spinal cord and/or cauda equina injuries: long-term results in a series of 44 patients. Pain 92:159171, 2001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 124

    Sindou MP, , Blondet E, , Emery E, & Mertens P: Microsurgical lesioning in the dorsal root entry zone for pain due to brachial plexus avulsion: a prospective series of 55 patients. J Neurosurg 102:10181028, 2005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 125

    Slappendel R, , Crul BJ, , Braak GJ, , Geurts JW, , Booij LH, & Voerman VF, : The efficacy of radiofrequency lesioning of the cervical spinal dorsal root ganglion in a double blinded randomized study: no difference between 40 degrees C and 67 degrees C treatments. Pain 73:159163, 1997

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 126

    Smith FP: Trans-spinal ganglionectomy for relief of intercostal pain. J Neurosurg 32:574577, 1970

  • 127

    Sourek K: Commissural myelotomy. J Neurosurg 31:524527, 1969

  • 128

    Spaic M, , Petkoviæ S, , Tadiæ R, & Miniæ L: DREZ surgery on conus medullaris (after failed implantation of vascular omental graft) for treating chronic pain due to spine (gunshot) injuries. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 141:13091312, 1999

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 129

    Spiegel EA, & Wycis HT: Mesencephalotomy in treatment of intractable facial pain. AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatry 69:113, 1953

  • 130

    Staender M, , Maerz U, , Tonn JC, & Steude U: Computerized tomography-guided kryorhizotomy in 76 patients with lumbar facet joint syndrome. J Neurosurg Spine 3:444449, 2005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 131

    Stechison MT, & Mullin BB: Surgical treatment of greater occipital neuralgia: an appraisal of strategies. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 131:236240, 1994

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 132

    Stovner LJ, , Kolstad F, & Helde G: Radiofrequency denervation of facet joints C2-C6 in cervicogenic headache: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study. Cephalalgia 24:821830, 2004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 133

    Taha JM, & Tew JM Jr: Comparison of surgical treatments for trigeminal neuralgia: reevaluation of radiofrequency rhizotomy. Neurosurgery 38:865871, 1996

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 134

    Taha JM, & Tew JM Jr: Long-term results of radiofrequency rhizotomy in the treatment of cluster headache. Headache 35:193196, 1995

  • 135

    Taha JM, , Tew JM Jr, & Buncher CR: A prospective 15-year follow up of 154 consecutive patients with trigeminal neuralgia treated by percutaneous stereotactic radiofrequency thermal rhizotomy. J Neurosurg 83:989993, 1995

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 136

    Tasker RR, Stereotactic medial thalamotomy for chronic pain: is it an effective procedure?. Burchiel KJ: Surgical Management of Pain New York, Thieme Medical Publishers, 2002. 812820

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 137

    Tasker RR, , DeCarvalho GT, & Dolan EJ: Intractable pain of spinal cord origin: clinical features and implications for surgery. J Neurosurg 77:373378, 1992

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 138

    Taub A, , Robinson F, & Taub E: Dorsal root ganglionectomy for intractable monoradicular sciatica. A series of 61 patients Stereotact Funct. Neurosurg 65:106110, 1995

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 139

    Thomas DG, & Jones SJ: Dorsal root entry zone lesions (Nashold's procedure) in brachial plexus avulsion. Neurosurgery 15:966968, 1984

  • 140

    Thomas DG, & Kitchen ND: Long-term follow up of dorsal root entry zone lesions in brachial plexus avulsion. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 57:737738, 1994

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 141

    Tomas R, & Haninec P: Dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) localization using direct spinal cord stimulation can improve results of the DREZ thermocoagulation procedure for intractable pain relief. Pain 116:159163, 2005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 142

    Tucker SM, & Tarlov EC: Intraorbital surgery for trigeminal neuralgia. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 21:1115, 2005

  • 143

    Turnbull IM: Bilateral cingulumotomy combined with thalamotomy or mesencephalic tractotomy for pain. Surg Gynecol Obstet 134:958962, 1972

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 144

    Turner JA, , Sears JM, & Loeser JD: Programmable intrathecal opioid delivery systems for chronic noncancer pain: a systematic review of effectiveness and complications. Clin J Pain 23:180195, 2007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 145

    Tzaan WC, & Tasker RR: Percutaeous radiofrequency facet rhizotomy—experience with 118 procedures and reappraisal of its value. Can J Neurol Sci 27:125130, 2000

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 146

    van Kleef M, , Barendse GA, , Kessels A, , Voets HM, , Weber WE, & de Lange S: Randomized trial of radiofrequency lumbar facet denervation for chronic low back pain. Spine 24:19371942, 1999

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 147

    van Kleef M, , Liem L, , Lousberg R, , Barendse G, , Kessels F, & Sluijter M: Radiofrequency lesion adjacent to the dorsal root ganglion for cervicobrachial pain: a prospective double blind randomized study. Neurosurgery 38:11271132, 1996

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 148

    van Suijlekom HA, , van Kleef M, , Barendse GA, , Sluijter ME, , Sjaastad O, & Weber WE: Radiofrequency cervical zygapophyseal joint neurotomy for cervicogenic headache: a prospective study of 15 patients. Funct Neurol 13:297303, 1998

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 149

    Voris HC, & Whisler WW: Results of stereotaxic surgery for intractable pain. Confin Neurol 37:8696, 1975

  • 150

    Walchenbach R, , Voormolen JH, & Hermans J: Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia: a critical reappraisal. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 96:290295, 1994

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 151

    Wallis BJ, , Lord SM, & Bogduk N: Resolution of psychological distress of whiplash patients following treatment by radiofrequency neurotomy: a randomised, double-blind, placebocontrolled trial. Pain 73:1522, 1997

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 152

    Wetzel FT, , Phillips FM, , Aprill CN, , Bernard TN Jr, & LaRocca HS: Extradural sensory rhizotomy in the management of chronic lumbar radiculopathy: a minimum 2-year follow-up study. Spine 22:22832292, 1997

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 153

    White JC, & Kjellberg RN: Posterior spinal rhizotomy: a substitute for cordotomy in the relief of localized pain in patients with normal life-expectancy. Neurochirurgia (Stuttg) 16:141170, 1973

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 154

    Wilkinson HA, & Chan AS: Sensory ganglionectomy: theory, technical aspects, and clinical experience. J Neurosurg 95:6166, 2001

  • 155

    Wilkinson HA, , Davidson KM, & Davidson RI: Bilateral anterior cingulotomy for chronic noncancer pain. Neurosurgery 45:11291136, 1999

  • 156

    Wilson DH, & Chang AE: Bilateral anterior cingulectomy for the relief of intractable pain. Report of 23 patients. Confin Neurol 36:6168, 1974

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 157

    Wycis HT, , Folkerts JF, & Spiegel EA: Treatment of postherpetic trigeminal neuralgia by mesencephalotomy or combined nesencephalothalamotomy. Zentralbl Neurochir 18:188201, 1958

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 158

    Wycis HT, & Spiegel EA: Long-range results in the treatment of intractable pain by stereotaxic midbrain surgery. J Neurosurg 19:101107, 1962

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 159

    Yen CP, , Kung SS, , Su YF, , Lin WC, , Howng SL, & Kwan AL: Stereotactic bilateral anterior cingulotomy for intractable pain. J Clin Neurosci 12:886890, 2005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 160

    Yoon KB, , Wiles JR, , Miles JB, & Nurmikko TJ: Long-term outcome of percutaneous thermocoagulation for trigeminal neuralgia. Anaesthesia 54:803808, 1999

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 161

    Young RF: Clinical experience with radiofrequency and laser DREZ lesions. J Neurosurg 72:715720, 1990

  • 162

    Young RF, , Vermeulen SS, , Grimm P, , Posewitz AE, , Jacques DB, & Rand RW, : Gamma Knife thalamotomy for the treatment of persistent pain. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 64:1 Suppl 172181, 1995

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 163

    Zakrzewska JM, , Jassim S, & Bulman JS: A prospective, longitudinal study on patients with trigeminal neuralgia who underwent radiofrequency thermocoagulation of the Gasserian ganglion. Pain 79:5158, 1999

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 164

    Zapletal B: Open mesencephalotomy and thalamotomy for intractable pain. Acta Neurochir (Wien) Suppl 18:11119, 1969

  • 165

    Ziccardi VB, , Janosky JE, , Patterson GT, & Jannetta PJ: Peripheral trigeminal nerve surgery for patients with atypical facial pain. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 22:355360, 1994

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 166

    Zorman G, & Wilson CB: Outcome following microsurgical vascular decompression or partial sensory rhizotomy in 125 cases of trigeminal neuralgia. Neurology 34:13621365, 1984

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 426 193 23
Full Text Views 285 41 3
PDF Downloads 194 26 2
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0