✓The authors compared the accuracy of laser surface scanning patient registration using the commercially available Fazer (Medtronic, Inc.) with the conventional registration procedure based on fiducial markers (FMs) in computer-assisted surgery.
Four anatomical head specimens were prepared with 10 titanium microscrews placed at defined locations and scanned with a 16-slice spiral computed tomography unit. To compare the two registration methods, each method was applied five times for each cadaveric specimen; thus data were obtained from 40 registrations. Five microscrews (selected following a randomization protocol) were used for each FM-based registration; the other five FMs were selected for coordinate measurements by touching with a point measurement stylus. Coordinates of these points were also measured manually on the screen of the navigation computer. Coordinates were measured in the same manner after laser surface registration.
The root mean square error as calculated by the navigation system ranged from 1.3 to 3.2 mm (mean 1.8 mm) with the Fazer and from 0.3 to 1.8 mm (mean 1.0 mm) with FM-based registration. The overall mean deviations (the arithmetic mean of the mean deviations of measurements on the four specimens) were 3.0 mm (standard deviation [SD] range 1.4–2.6 mm) with the Fazer and 1.4 mm (SD range 0.4–0.9 mm) with the FMs. The Fazer registration scans 300 surface points. Statistical tests showed the difference in the accuracy of these methods to be highly significant.
In accordance with the findings of other groups, the authors concluded that the inclusion of a larger number of registration points might improve the accuracy of Fazer registration.
Abbreviations used in this paper:ANOVA = analysis of variance; CT = computed tomography; FM = fiducial marker; RMSE = root mean square error; SD = standard deviation.
Address reprint requests to: Kurt Schicho, D.Sc., University Hospital for Craniomaxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria. email:
MarmullaRLuthTMuhlingJHassfeldS: Automated laser registration in image-guided surgery: evaluation of the correlation between laser scan resolution and navigation accuracy. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg33:642–6482004