Electrocorticographically controlled brain–computer interfaces using motor and sensory imagery in patients with temporary subdural electrode implants

Report of four cases

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✓Brain–computer interface (BCI) technology can offer individuals with severe motor disabilities greater independence and a higher quality of life. The BCI systems take recorded brain signals and translate them into real-time actions, for improved communication, movement, or perception. Four patient participants with a clinical need for intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG) participated in this study. The participants were trained over multiple sessions to use motor and/or auditory imagery to modulate their brain signals in order to control the movement of a computer cursor. Participants with electrodes over motor and/or sensory areas were able to achieve cursor control over 2 to 7 days of training. These findings indicate that sensory and other brain areas not previously considered ideal for ECoG-based control can provide additional channels of control that may be useful for a motor BCI.

Abbreviations used in this paper:BCI = brain–computer interface; ECoG = electrocorticography; EEG = electroencephalography.
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Contributor Notes

Address reprint requests to: Justin C. Williams, Ph.D., Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1550 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1608. email: jwilliams@engr.wisc.edu.
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