Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 56 items for :

  • Vascular Disorders x
  • Refine by Level: All x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

nlm-article

Izumi Koyanagi, Yasuhiro Chiba, Hiroyuki Imamura, and Toshiya Osanai

BACKGROUND

Intradural radicular arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the cauda equina is a rare entity of spinal AVMs. Because of the specific arterial supply of the conus medullaris and cauda equina, AVMs in this area sometimes present with confusing radiological features.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors reported a rare case of intradural radicular AVM arising from the lumbar posterior root. The patient presented with urinary symptoms with multiple flow void around the conus medullaris, as shown on magnetic resonance imaging. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated arteriovenous shunt at the left side of the conus medullaris fed by the anterior spinal artery via anastomotic channel to the posterior spinal artery and rich perimedullary drainers. There was another arteriovenous shunt at the L3 level from the left L4 radicular artery. Preoperative diagnosis was perimedullary AVM with radicular arteriovenous fistula. Direct surgery with indocyanine green angiography revealed that the actual arteriovenous shunt was located at the left L4 posterior root. The AVM was successfully treated by coagulation of feeding branches.

LESSONS

Unilateral arteriovenous shunt fed by either posterior or anterior spinal artery at the conus medullaris may include AVM of the cauda equina despite abundant perimedullary venous drainage. Careful pre- and intraoperative diagnostic imaging is necessary for appropriate treatment.

Open access

nlm-article

Florian Wilhelmy, Tim Wende, Johannes Kasper, Maxime Ablefoni, Lena Marie Bode, Jürgen Meixensberger, and Ulf Nestler

BACKGROUND

Posterior fossa epidural hematoma rarely occurs in children after traumatic head injury. There is ongoing discussion about appropriate treatment, yet the radiological features regarding the time to resorption of the hematoma or required follow-up imaging are rarely discussed.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors presented the case of a 3-year-old child who was under clinical observation and receiving analgetic and antiemetic treatment in whom near-complete hematoma resorption was shown by magnetic resonance imaging as soon as 60 hours after diagnosis. The child was neurologically stable at all times and showed no deficit after observational treatment. Hematoma resorption was much faster than expected. The authors discussed hematoma drainage via the sigmoid sinus.

LESSONS

Epidural hematomas in children can be treated conservatively and are resorbed in a timely manner.

Open access

nlm-article

Reilly L. Kidwell, Lauren E. Stone, Vanessa Goodwill, and Joseph D. Ciacci

BACKGROUND

Thoracic epidural capillary hemangioma is exceedingly rare, with only a few reported cases. The typical presentation usually includes chronic, progressive symptoms of spinal cord compression in middle-aged adults. To the authors’ knowledge, this case is the first report in the literature of acute traumatic capillary hemangioma rupture.

OBSERVATIONS

A 22-year-old male presented with worsening lower extremity weakness and paresthesias after a fall onto his spine. Imaging showed no evidence of spinal fracture but revealed an expanding hematoma over 24 hours. Removal of the lesion demonstrated a ruptured capillary hemangioma.

LESSONS

This unique case highlights a rare occurrence of traumatic rupture of a previously unknown asymptomatic thoracic capillary hemangioma in a young adult.

Open access

nlm-article

Carmen R. Holmes, Giuseppe Lanzino, and Kelly D. Flemming

BACKGROUND

Little is known about whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) influences cavernous malformation (CM) formation or hemorrhage risk.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present the case of a 31-year-old patient who developed a hemorrhagic, de novo CM in the setting of a developmental venous anomaly within 3 months of COVID-19 respiratory disease. The authors speculate that COVID-19 disease stimulated formation of the CM through TLR4 inflammatory pathways and subsequently led to the hemorrhagic presentation because of hypercoagulability related to the disease.

LESSONS

This case raises the possibility that COVID-19 may be a risk factor for de novo development of CMs in predisposed patients.

Open access

nlm-article

Taichi Ishiguro, Koji Yamaguchi, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Daiki Ottomo, Takayuki Funatsu, Go Matsuoka, Yoshihiro Omura, and Takakazu Kawamata

BACKGROUND

Trapping an aneurysm after the establishment of an extracranial to intracranial high-flow bypass is considered the optimal surgical strategy for ruptured blood blister–like aneurysms (BBAs) of the internal carotid artery (ICA). For high-flow bypass surgeries, a radial artery graft is generally preferred over a saphenous vein graft (SVG). However, SVGs can be advantageous in acute-phase surgeries because of their greater length, easy manipulability, ability to act as high-flow conduits, and reduced risk of vasospasms. In this study, the authors presented five cases of ruptured BBAs treated with high-flow bypass using an SVG followed by BBA trapping, and they reported on surgical outcomes and operative nuances that may help avoid potential pitfalls.

OBSERVATIONS

After the surgeries, there were no ischemic or hemorrhagic complications, including symptomatic vasospasms. In three of the five cases, postoperative modified Rankin scale scores were between 0 and 2 at the 3-month follow-up. In one case, the SVG spontaneously occluded after surgery while the protective superficial temporal artery (STA) to middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass became dominant, and the patient experienced no ischemic symptoms.

LESSONS

High-flow bypass using an SVG with a protective STA-MCA bypass followed by BBA trapping is a safe and effective treatment strategy.

Open access

nlm-article

Kota Nakajima, Takeshi Funaki, Masakazu Okawa, Kazumichi Yoshida, and Susumu Miyamoto

BACKGROUND

Selecting therapeutic options for moyamoya disease (MMD)-associated anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm, a rare pathology in children, is challenging because its natural course remains unclear.

OBSERVATIONS

A 4-year-old boy exhibiting transient ischemic attacks was diagnosed with unilateral MMD accompanied by an unruptured ACoA aneurysm. Although superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis eliminated his symptoms, the aneurysm continued to grow after surgery. Since a previous craniotomy and narrow endovascular access at the ACoA precluded both aneurysmal clipping and coil embolization, the patient underwent a surgical anastomosis incorporating an occipital artery graft between the bilateral cortical anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs). This was intended to augment blood flow in the ipsilateral ACA territory and to reduce the hemodynamic burden on the ACoA complex. The postoperative course was uneventful, and radiological images obtained 12 months after surgery revealed good patency of the bypass and marked shrinkage of the aneurysm in spite of the intact contralateral internal carotid artery.

LESSONS

Various clinical scenarios should be assessed carefully with regard to this pathology. Bypass surgery aimed at reducing flow to the aneurysm might be an alternative therapeutic option when neither coiling nor clipping is feasible.

Open access

nlm-article

Rohin Singh, Visish M. Srinivasan, Joshua S. Catapano, Joseph D. DiDomenico, Jacob F. Baranoski, and Michael T. Lawton

BACKGROUND

Coccidioidomycosis is a primarily self-limiting fungal disease endemic to the western United States and South America. However, severe disseminated infection can occur. The authors report a severe case of coccidioidal meningitis that appeared to be a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on initial inspection.

OBSERVATIONS

A man in his early 40s was diagnosed with coccidioidal pneumonia after presenting with pulmonary symptoms. After meningeal spread characterized by declining mental status and hydrocephalus, coccidioidal meningitis was diagnosed. The uniquely difficult aspect of this case was the deceptive appearance of SAH due to the presence of multiple aneurysms and blood draining from the patient’s external ventricular drain.

LESSONS

Coccidioidal infection likely led to the formation of multiple intracranial aneurysms in this patient. Although few reports exist of coccidioidal meningitis progressing to aneurysm formation, patients should be closely monitored for this complication because outcomes are poor. The presence of basal cistern hyperdensities from a coccidioidal infection mimicking SAH makes interpreting imaging difficult. Surgical management of SAH can be considered safe and viable, especially when the index of suspicion is high, such as in the presence of multiple aneurysms. Even if it is unclear whether aneurysmal rupture has occurred, prompt treatment is advisable.

Open access

nlm-article

Anass Benomar, Harrison J. Westwick, Sami Obaid, André Nzokou, Sung-Joo Yuh, and Daniel Shedid

BACKGROUND

Atlantoaxial sublaminar wiring has many known complications related to hardware failure, but intracranial hemorrhage is a rare complication.

OBSERVATIONS

A 61-year-old female patient with prior atlantoaxial sublaminar wiring for odontoid fracture nonunion experienced decreased level of consciousness due to a subarachnoid and subdural hemorrhage of the posterior fossa with intraventricular extension and hydrocephalus. Rupture of the sublaminar wire with intramedullary protrusion was the cause of the hemorrhage. The patient was treated with ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus and occipital cervical fusion for spinal instability, along with removal of the broken wire and drainage of a hematoma.

LESSONS

This uncommon cause of intracranial hemorrhage highlights an additional risk of atlantoaxial sublaminar wiring compared with other atlantoaxial fusion techniques. In addition, this case suggests cervical instrumentation failure as a differential diagnosis of subarachnoid and subdural hemorrhage of the posterior fossa when a history of prior instrumentation is known.

Open access

nlm-article

Keita Tominaga, Hidenori Endo, Shin-ichiro Sugiyama, Shin-ichiro Osawa, Kuniyasu Niizuma, and Teiji Tominaga

BACKGROUND

Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is caused by neurovascular contact along the facial nerve’s root exit zone (REZ). The authors report a rare HFS case that was associated with ipsilateral subclavian steal syndrome (SSS).

OBSERVATIONS

A 42-year-old man with right-sided aortic arch presented with progressing left HFS, which was associated with ipsilateral SSS due to severe stenosis of the left brachiocephalic trunk. Magnetic resonance imaging showed contact between the left REZ and vertebral artery (VA), which had shifted to the left. The authors speculated that the severe stenosis at the left brachiocephalic trunk resulted in the left VA’s deviation, which was the underlying cause of the HFS. The authors performed percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) to dilate the left brachiocephalic trunk. Ischemic symptoms of the left arm improved after PTA, but the HFS remained unchanged. A computational fluid dynamics study showed that the high wall shear stress (WSS) around the site of neurovascular contact decreased after PTA. In contrast, pressure at the point of neurovascular contact increased after PTA.

LESSONS

SSS is rarely associated with HFS. Endovascular treatment for SSS reduced WSS of the neurovascular contact but increased theoretical pressure of the neurovascular contact. Physical release of the neurovascular contact is the best treatment option for HFS.

Open access

nlm-article

Marwah A. Elsehety, Hussein A. Zeineddine, Andrew D. Barreto, and Spiros L. Blackburn

BACKGROUND

Large pituitary adenomas can rarely cause compression of the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) due to chronic tumor compression or invasion. Here, the authors present a case of pituitary apoplexy causing acute bilateral ICA occlusion with resultant stroke. Our middle-aged patient presented with sudden vision loss and experienced rapid deterioration requiring intubation. Computed tomography (CT) angiography revealed a large pituitary mass causing severe stenosis of the bilateral ICAs. CT perfusion revealed a significant perfusion delay in the anterior circulation. The patient was taken for cerebral angiography, and balloon angioplasty was attempted with no improvement in arterial flow. Resection of the tumor was then performed, with successful restoration of blood flow. Despite restoration of luminal patency, the patient experienced bilateral ICA infarcts.

OBSERVATIONS

Pituitary apoplexy can present as an acute stroke due to flow-limiting carotid compression. Balloon angioplasty is ineffective for the treatment of this type of compression. Surgical removal of the tumor restores the flow and luminal caliber of the ICA.

LESSONS

Pituitary apoplexy can be a rare presentation of acute stroke and should be managed with immediate surgical decompression rather than attempted angioplasty in order to restore blood flow and prevent the development of cerebral ischemia.