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Open access

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Woo Cheul Cho, Hyeong Jin Lee, Jung Koo Lee, and Jai Ho Choi

BACKGROUND

Eosinophilic meningitis is a rare known complication after brain surgery associated with duraplasty using artificial bovine graft. However, eosinophilic meningitis after craniotomy without bovine dural graft has not been reported.

OBSERVATIONS

A 48-year-old female presented with lateral medullary infarction caused by a vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm incorporating the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). The authors performed occipital artery–PICA anastomosis and repaired the dura by primary suture without bovine graft. Thereafter, endovascular internal trapping using coils was conducted. Severe headache developed at postoperative day 17, and the patient was diagnosed with eosinophilic meningitis. After administration of a high-dose corticosteroid for 2 weeks, her symptoms and laboratory findings were improved.

LESSONS

Postoperative eosinophilic meningitis is rarely related to craniotomy without using bovine graft. Neurosurgeons should consider the possibility of eosinophilic meningitis after craniotomy without a xenogeneic dural material.

Open access

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Anjali Pradhan, François Xavier Rutayisire, Paulin Munyemana, and Claire Karekezi

BACKGROUND

Intracranial suppuration (ICS) is a rare complication that can arise from various disease processes and is composed of brain abscess, extradural empyema, and subdural empyema. Although significant progress has been achieved with antibiotics, neuroimaging, and neurosurgical technique, ICS remains a serious neurosurgical emergency. An uncommon presentation of ICS is sterile ICS, which has yet to be fully elucidated by clinicians. The authors present 2 cases of unusual sterile ICS: a sterile subdural empyema and a sterile brain abscess.

OBSERVATIONS

Both patients underwent surgical treatment consisting of craniotomy to evacuate the pus collection. The blood cultures from both the patients, the collected empyema, and the thick capsule from the brain abscess were sterile. However, the necrotic brain tissue surrounding the abscess contained inflammatory cells. The authors’ review of the literature emphasizes the rarity of sterile ICS and substantiates the necessity for additional studies to explore this field.

LESSONS

Sterile ICS is a disease entity that warrants further investigation to determine appropriate treatment to improve patient outcomes. This study highlights the paucity of data available regarding sterile ICS and supports the need for future studies to uncover the etiology of sterile ICS to better guide management of this condition.

Open access

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Carmen R. Holmes, Giuseppe Lanzino, and Kelly D. Flemming

BACKGROUND

Little is known about whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) influences cavernous malformation (CM) formation or hemorrhage risk.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present the case of a 31-year-old patient who developed a hemorrhagic, de novo CM in the setting of a developmental venous anomaly within 3 months of COVID-19 respiratory disease. The authors speculate that COVID-19 disease stimulated formation of the CM through TLR4 inflammatory pathways and subsequently led to the hemorrhagic presentation because of hypercoagulability related to the disease.

LESSONS

This case raises the possibility that COVID-19 may be a risk factor for de novo development of CMs in predisposed patients.

Open access

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Stephen Capone, Dokpe Emechebe, Eric G. St. Clair, Ali Sadr, and Michelle Feinberg

BACKGROUND

Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculomas are a feared complication of tuberculosis (TB) infection. These lesions can present in varying manners and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of the lesion and the underlying infection are critical in the care of these patients. The authors presented a case of a 45-year-old Yemeni immigrant presenting with a 3-month history of severe right temporo-occipital headaches with photophobia and night sweats. Imaging showed a rim-enhancing lesion in the right cerebellar hemisphere.

OBSERVATIONS

Laboratory tests were unremarkable and within normal limits. QuantiFERON testing was negative, ruling out latent TB infection. The patient received a suboccipital craniotomy, and resection of the cerebellar lesion showed caseating granuloma formation, which was positive for acid-fast bacilli and Fite stain.

LESSONS

CNS tuberculomas are an important differential to consider in patients with a history of primary TB, regardless of active disease or immunocompetent status. Resection of these lesions remains a viable treatment option that is safe and effective.

Open access

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Johnson Ku, Chieh-Yi Chen, Jason Ku, Hsuan-Kan Chang, Jau-Ching Wu, and Yu-Shu Yen

BACKGROUND

Nasal swab tests are one of the most essential tools for screening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The authors report a rare case of iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak from the anterior skull base after repeated nasal swab tests for COVID-19, which was treated with endoscopic endonasal repair.

OBSERVATIONS

A 41-year-old man presented with clear continuous rhinorrhea through his left nostril for 5 days after repeated nasal swabbing for COVID-19. There were no obvious risk factors for spontaneous CSF leak. Computed tomography cisternography showed contrast accumulation in the left olfactory fossa and along the left nasal cavity. Such findings aligned with a preliminary diagnosis of CSF leakage through the left cribriform plate. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of a CSF fistula between his left cribriform plate and superior nasal concha. The patient underwent endoscopic endonasal repair. CSF rhinorrhea ceased after the surgery, and no recurrence was noted during the 12-week postoperative follow-up period.

LESSONS

Although rare, iatrogenic CSF leakage can be a serious complication following COVID-19 nasal swab tests, especially when infection may cause significant neurological sequelae. Healthcare providers should become familiar with nasal cavity anatomy and be well trained in performing nasal swab tests.

Open access

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Konrad Gag, Jonas Müller, Marie Süße, Robert Fleischmann, and Henry W. S. Schroeder

BACKGROUND

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare, acquired demyelination syndrome that causes cognitive impairment and focal neurological deficits and may be fatal. The potentially reversible disease mainly affects children, often after vaccination or viral infection, but may be seen rarely in adults.

OBSERVATIONS

A 50-year-old woman presented with loss of visual acuity of the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an intra- and suprasellar mass, which was removed successfully. On postoperative day 1, MRI showed gross total resection of the lesion and no surgery-related complications. On postoperative day 2, the patient presented with a progressive left-sided hemiparesis, hemineglect, and decline of cognitive performance. MRI showed white matter edema in both hemispheres. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed mixed pleocytosis (355/µL) without further evidence of infection. In synopsis of the findings, ADEM was diagnosed and treated with intravenous immunoglobulins. Shortly thereafter, the patient recovered, and no sensorimotor deficits were detected in the follow-up examination.

LESSONS

Pituitary gland pathologies are commonly treated by transsphenoidal surgery, with only minor risks for complications. A case of ADEM after craniopharyngioma resection has not been published before and should be considered in case of progressive neurological deterioration with multiple white matter lesions.

Open access

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Rohin Singh, Visish M. Srinivasan, Joshua S. Catapano, Joseph D. DiDomenico, Jacob F. Baranoski, and Michael T. Lawton

BACKGROUND

Coccidioidomycosis is a primarily self-limiting fungal disease endemic to the western United States and South America. However, severe disseminated infection can occur. The authors report a severe case of coccidioidal meningitis that appeared to be a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on initial inspection.

OBSERVATIONS

A man in his early 40s was diagnosed with coccidioidal pneumonia after presenting with pulmonary symptoms. After meningeal spread characterized by declining mental status and hydrocephalus, coccidioidal meningitis was diagnosed. The uniquely difficult aspect of this case was the deceptive appearance of SAH due to the presence of multiple aneurysms and blood draining from the patient’s external ventricular drain.

LESSONS

Coccidioidal infection likely led to the formation of multiple intracranial aneurysms in this patient. Although few reports exist of coccidioidal meningitis progressing to aneurysm formation, patients should be closely monitored for this complication because outcomes are poor. The presence of basal cistern hyperdensities from a coccidioidal infection mimicking SAH makes interpreting imaging difficult. Surgical management of SAH can be considered safe and viable, especially when the index of suspicion is high, such as in the presence of multiple aneurysms. Even if it is unclear whether aneurysmal rupture has occurred, prompt treatment is advisable.

Open access

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Noritaka Yonezawa, Yuji Tokuumi, Nobuhiko Komine, Takaaki Uto, Yasumitsu Toribatake, Hideki Murakami, Satoru Demura, and Hiroyuki Tsuchiya

BACKGROUND

Early balloon kyphoplasty (BKP) intervention for acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (OVF) has been reported to be more effective than the conservative treatment. However, complications of early BKP intervention are still unknown.

OBSERVATIONS

A 71-year-old patient with OVF of L2 underwent BKP 2 weeks after symptom onset. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph were compatible with new L2 OVF. Although computed tomography (CT) images revealed the atypical destruction of lower endplate of L2 as OVF, L2 BKP was planned. After BKP, his back pain improved dramatically. Two weeks after BKP, his lower back pain recurred. MRI and CT confirmed the diagnosis of infectious spondylitis with paravertebral abscess formation. With adequate antibiotic treatment and rehabilitation, he was symptom-free and completely ambulatory without signs of infection.

LESSONS

Signal changes on the fractured vertebral bodies during initial MRI and fractured vertebral instability on radiograph can mislead the surgeon to interpret the infection as a benign compression fracture. If the patients exhibit unusual destruction of the endplate on CT imaging, “simultaneous-onset” spondylitis with vertebral fracture should be included in the differential diagnosis. To determine the strategy for OVF, preoperative biopsy is recommended if simultaneous-onset spondylitis with vertebral fracture is suspected.

Open access

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William W. Lines, Juan Luis Gómez-Amador, Hector H. García, Jorge E. Medina, Elías Lira, Luis A. Antonio, Jose Calderon, Jesús Félix, Luis J. Saavedra, Yelimer Caucha, and Carlos M. Vásquez

BACKGROUND

Subarachnoid neurocysticercosis (NCC) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Conventional transcranial approaches and transventricular endoscopy have been previously reported for extraparenchymal NCC and ventricular NCC, respectively. By October 2019, endonasal endoscopic approaches had not been used for the treatment of NCC.

OBSERVATIONS

A 54-year-old-woman with NCC was admitted with acute neurological deterioration due to severe intracranial hypertension caused by massive subarachnoid NCC cysts, as evidenced on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with great brainstem compression. The case was discussed, and an endoscopic endonasal resection of the NCC cysts was scheduled. The diagnosis was confirmed by pathological anatomy. There were no complications in the surgery, with marked neurological improvement. Control MRIs demonstrated a significant reduction of NCC cysts.

LESSONS

Minimally invasive approaches are an excellent alternative for skull-base tumoral and infectious pathology. Prior knowledge of the pathophysiology and the authors’ experience in the management of patients with NCC allowed them to propose this approach, with optimal results.

Open access

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Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Antonio Carlos Samaia da Silva Coelho, João Paulo Mota Telles, Giselle Coelho, Caio Santos de Souza, Tania Regina Tozetto-Mendoza, Natan Ponzoni Galvani de Oliveira, Paulo Henrique Braz-Silva, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

BACKGROUND

Subarachnoid hemorrhages secondary to intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are events of high mortality. These neurological vascular diseases arise from local and systemic inflammation that culminates in vessel wall changes. They may also have a possible relationship with chronic viral infections, such as human herpesvirus (HHV), and especially Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), which causes several medical conditions. This is the first description of the presence of HHV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in a patient with IA.

OBSERVATIONS

A 61-year-old woman with a downgraded level of consciousness underwent radiological examinations that identified a 10-mm ruptured aneurysm in the anterior communicating artery. A microsurgery clip was performed to definitively treat the aneurysm and occurred without surgical complications. Molecular analysis of the material obtained revealed the presence of EBV DNA in the aneurysm wall. The patient died 21 days after admission due to clinical complications and brain swelling.

LESSONS

This is the first description of the presence of herpesvirus DNA in a patient with IA, presented in 2.8% of our data. These findings highlight that viral infection may contribute to the pathophysiology and is an additional risk factor for IA formation, progression, and rupture by modulating vessel wall inflammation and structural changes in chronic infections.