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Francisco Vaz Guimarães Filho, Giselle Coelho, Sergio Cavalheiro, Marcos Lyra, and Samuel T. Zymberg

N eurosurgical skill formation is a long, consuming process. During the first years of resident training, initial support is provided by anatomical lectures and direct or indirect (video sessions) observation of surgeries. However, improvement in surgical techniques and manual skills must still be accomplished through laboratory training followed by supervised surgeries. Several models are used in surgical training: cadaveric or animal models as well as surgical simulators. 2 , 4 , 5 , 7

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Jia-Ping Zheng, Chu-Zhong Li, and Guo-Qiang Chen

convenient and practical model for anatomical learning and surgical training limits the development of EETSS. 3 , 11 , 17 There are many reports regarding skull base models for neurosurgical training. 1 , 15 , 24 According to a previous study, individualized models that reflect the anatomical relationship between the tumor and surrounding structures can effectively avoid surgical complications and shorten operation time. 14 However, due to the limitation of craftsmanship, 3D-printed models that are

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Rimal Hanif Dossani, John Shaughnessy, Piyush Kalakoti, and Anil Nanda

formal education of surgeons in Canada. Aspiring surgeons left Canada for the United States or the United Kingdom to gain surgical training. Gallie’s influence was not limited to a single surgical discipline. His other novel contributions to surgery include his work on tendon fixation for repair of pediatric foot deformities and use of fascia lata autograft for closure of large ventral abdominal hernias. 7 , 9 Gallie was a prolific leader and educator. He served as the longest acting President of

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Giselle Coelho, Eduardo Vieira, Jose Hinojosa, and Hans Delye

: Coelho. Supervision: Coelho. Defining video content/format together with corresponding author: Delye. References 1 Coelho G , Warf B , Lyra M , Zanon N . Anatomical pediatric model for craniosynostosis surgical training . Childs Nerv Syst . 2014 ; 30 ( 12 ): 2009 – 2014 . 2 Coelho G , Figueiredo EG , Rabelo NN , . Development and evaluation of a new pediatric mixed-reality model for neurosurgical training . J Neurosurg Pediatr . 2019 ; 24 ( 4 ): 423 – 432 . 3

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Tufan Hicdonmez, Turgay Parsak, and Sebahattin Cobanoglu

the risk (albeit minimal) of exposure to contracting animal diseases, including transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. 2 Specimens should be obtained from a reliable source, and from animals that have been under veterinary supervision. Rigorous sterilization procedures must be followed, and the neurosurgical tools and microplates used should be instruments dedicated solely to laboratory training. In terms of its advantages for craniofacial surgical training, this model offers opportunities

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Emad Aboud, Ossama Al-Mefty, and M. Gazi Yaşargil

even endovascular procedures. The presence of clear fluid in the subarachnoid spaces, the pulsation, and the vascular filling give greater realism to these training procedures. This model provides the trainee with a unique opportunity to practice hemostasis, management of bleeding, and the paramount tasks of surgical training under crisis conditions, such as the presence of a ruptured aneurysm, which are not available using any alternative model. Similar opportunities for training can be offered to

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Jesse L. Winer, Daniel R. Kramer, Richard A. Robison, Ifije Ohiorhenuan, Michael Minneti, Steven Giannotta, and Gabriel Zada

equipment and surgical approaches, and build the psychosomatic foundations required to perform a given operation may improve surgical training and directly transfer to surgical experience in the operating room. 11 , 12 , 14 However, certain surgical procedures are particularly challenging to simulate and are limited by constraints in anatomical accuracy and the lack of haptic feedback. For example, neuroendoscopic approaches to intraventricular pathology are extremely difficult to model using only

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Emad Aboud, Ghaith Aboud, Ossama Al-Mefty, Talal Aboud, Stylianos Rammos, Mohammad Abolfotoh, Sanford P. C. Hsu, Sebastian Koga, Adam Arthur, and Ali Krisht

available provide a wide range of opportunities to practice skills and play a unique role in surgical training, they do not successfully replicate all the characteristics of the living human cerebral vasculature, particularly the combination of real human anatomy with lifelike surgical conditions. In this report, we present a practical training strategy with the “live cadaver” model, which uses the human anatomy under functional conditions to practice the management of intraoperative aneurysmal rupture

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Mihir Gupta, Allison Reichl, Luis Daniel Diaz-Aguilar, Pate J. Duddleston, Jamie S. Ullman, Karin M. Muraszko, Shelly D. Timmons, Isabelle M. Germano, Aviva Abosch, Jennifer A. Sweet, Susan C. Pannullo, Deborah L. Benzil, and Sharona Ben-Haim

attrition . J Neurosurg . 2019 ; 131 ( 5 ): 1668 – 1673 . 6 Rangel EL , Smink DS , Castillo-Angeles M , Pregnancy and motherhood during surgical training . JAMA Surg . 2018 ; 153 ( 7 ): 644 – 652 . 7 Cochran A , Hauschild T , Elder WB , Perceived gender-based barriers to careers in academic surgery . Am J Surg

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Irving J. Sherman, Ryan M. Kretzer, and Rafael J. Tamargo

postgraduate residency program for surgeons in the United States. At that time, the surgical subspecialties were not sufficiently developed to stand apart from general surgery or train their own residents. Although Halsted established separate clinics for the various surgical subspecialties, including a division for diseases of the nervous system, his residents trained in all fields of surgery. 4 Halsted’s revolutionary surgical residency program set the precedent for surgical training in the United