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Cover Neurosurgical Focus: Video

Combined deconstructive and reconstructive treatment of a giant vertebrobasilar fenestration aneurysm

Lorenzo Rinaldo, Soliman Oushy, and Giuseppe Lanzino

Aneurysms associated with a vertebrobasilar fenestration are rare lesions and can grow to a giant size, presenting significant therapeutic challenges. Endovascular treatment of these aneurysms has traditionally been with coiling; however, flow diverter placement within the fenestration arms has recently proven to be a viable treatment strategy. The authors present a case of a giant vertebrobasilar fenestration aneurysm in a patient presenting with a cranial nerve VI palsy. The lesion was treated by using a combination of flow diverter placement and vertebral artery sacrifice. The nuances of flow diversion therapy for these aneurysms and the management of intra- and postoperative complications are discussed.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2022.7.FOCVID2256

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Cover Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics

Safety of immediate use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs after pediatric craniotomy for tumor

Cody L. Nesvick, Soliman Oushy, David J. Daniels, and Edward S. Ahn

OBJECTIVE

Postoperative pain can limit the recovery of children undergoing craniotomy for tumor resection, and pain management is highly variable between institutions and practitioners. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in treating postoperative pain following craniotomy, but their use has been limited by concerns about postoperative hemorrhage. The risk of postoperative hemorrhage is not insignificant in patients undergoing craniotomy for tumor resection. No study has specifically addressed the safety of NSAIDs in the immediate postoperative setting following craniotomy for tumor resection in pediatric patients.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective cohort study in patients younger than 18 years of age who underwent craniotomy for tumor resection at a single tertiary referral center between 2009 and 2019. The study outcomes were 1) postoperative hemorrhage requiring return to the operating room for decompression, evacuation, or CSF diversion for hemorrhage-associated hydrocephalus; and 2) more-than-minimal hemorrhage on routine postoperative imaging. Patients receiving any NSAID in the hospital formulary on the same day as surgery (postoperative day zero [POD0]) were designated as such.

RESULTS

Two hundred seventy-six children underwent 308 craniotomies for tumor resection over the study period. One hundred fifty-four patients (50.0%) received at least one dose of an NSAID on POD0. Six patients (1.9%) required a return to the operating room for a hemorrhagic complication, including 3 who received an NSAID on POD0 (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.20–5.03). Seventeen patients (6.3% of patients imaged) had more-than-minimal hemorrhage on routine postoperative imaging, 9 of whom received an NSAID on POD0 (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.40–2.89).

CONCLUSIONS

Use of NSAIDs on POD0 was not associated with either an increased risk of hemorrhage requiring a return to the operating room or asymptomatic hemorrhage on routine postoperative imaging. The overall incidence of clinically significant postoperative intracranial hemorrhage is low. These data support the use of NSAIDs as a safe measure for pain control in the postoperative setting for children undergoing craniotomy for tumor resection.

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Cover Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics

Pediatric ganglioglioma of the brainstem and cervicomedullary junction: a retrospective cohort study

Soliman Oushy, Avital Perry, Christopher S. Graffeo, Aditya Raghunathan, Lucas P. Carlstrom, and David J. Daniels

OBJECTIVE

Ganglioglioma is a low-grade central nervous system neoplasm with a pediatric predominance, accounting for 10% of all brain tumors in children. Gangliogliomas of the cervicomedullary junction (GGCMJs) and brainstem (GGBSs) present a host of management challenges, including a significant risk of surgical morbidity. At present, understanding of the prognostic factors—including BRAF V600E status—is incomplete. Here, the authors report a single-institution GGCMJ and GGBS experience and review the pertinent literature.

METHODS

A prospectively maintained neurosurgical database at a large tertiary care academic referral center was retrospectively queried for cases of GGCMJ pathologically confirmed in the period from 1995 to 2015; appropriate cases were defined by diagnosis codes and keywords. Secondary supplemental chart review was conducted to confirm or capture relevant data. The primary study outcome was treatment failure as defined by evidence of radiographic recurrence or progression and/or clinical or functional decline. A review of the literature was conducted as well.

RESULTS

Five neurosurgically managed GGBS patients were identified, and the neoplasms in 4 were classified as GGCMJ. All 5 patients were younger than 18 years old (median 15 years, range 4–16 years) and 3 (60%) were female. One patient underwent gross-total resection, 2 underwent aggressive subtotal resection (STR), and 2 underwent stereotactic biopsy only. All patients who had undergone STR or biopsy required repeat resection for tumor control or progression. Progressive disease was treated with radiotherapy in 2 patients, chemotherapy in 2, and chemoradiotherapy alone in 1. Immunostaining for BRAF V600E was positive in 3 patients (60%). All 5 patients experienced at least one major complication, including wound infection, foot drop, hemiparesis, quadriparesis, cranial neuropathy, C2–3 subluxation, syringomyelia, hydrocephalus, aspiration, and coma. Overall mortality was 20%, with 1 death observed over 11 years of follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

GGBS and GGCMJ are rare, benign posterior fossa tumors that carry significant perioperative morbidity. Contemporary management strategies are heterogeneous and include combinations of resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The BRAF V600E mutation is frequently observed in GGBS and GGCMJ and appears to have both prognostic and therapeutic significance with targeted biological agents.

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Cover Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics

Extraordinary case presentations in pediatric pituitary adenoma: report of 6 cases

Jenna Meyer, Avital Perry, Soliman Oushy, Christopher S. Graffeo, Lucas P. Carlstrom, and Fredric B. Meyer

Pediatric pituitary adenomas (PPAs) are rare neoplasms with a propensity for unusual presentations and an aggressive clinical course. Here, the authors describe 6 highly atypical PPAs to highlight this tendency and discuss unexpected management challenges.

A 14-year-old girl presented with acute hemiparesis and aphasia. MRI revealed a pituitary macroadenoma causing internal carotid artery invasion/obliteration without acute apoplexy, which was treated via emergent transsphenoidal resection (TSR). Another 14-year-old girl developed precocious galactorrhea due to macroprolactinoma, which was medically managed. Several years later, she re-presented with acute, severe, bitemporal hemianopia during her third trimester of pregnancy, requiring emergent induction of labor followed by TSR. A 13-year-old boy was incidentally diagnosed with a prolactinoma after routine orthodontic radiographs captured a subtly abnormal sella. An 18-year-old male self-diagnosed pituitary gigantism through a school report on pituitary disease. A 17-year-old boy was diagnosed with Cushing disease by his basketball coach, a former endocrinologist. A 12-year-old girl with growth arrest and weight gain was diagnosed with Cushing disease, which was initially treated via TSR but subsequently recurred and ultimately required 12 operations, 5 radiation treatments involving 3 modalities, bilateral adrenalectomy, and chemotherapy. Despite these efforts, she ultimately died from pituitary carcinoma.

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Cover Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics

Delayed recurrence of pediatric arteriovenous malformations after radiologically confirmed obliteration

Soliman Oushy, Hannah E. Gilder, Cody L. Nesvick, Giuseppe Lanzino, Bruce E. Pollock, David J. Daniels, and Edward S. Ahn

OBJECTIVE

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a major cause of intracerebral hemorrhage in children, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the rate of AVM recurrence in children is significantly higher than in adults. The aim of this study was to define the risk of delayed pediatric AVM (pAVM) recurrence following confirmed radiological obliteration. Further understanding of this risk could inform the role of long-term radiological surveillance.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective review of ruptured and unruptured pAVM cases treated at a single tertiary care referral center between 1994 and 2019. Demographics, clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and AVM recurrence were analyzed.

RESULTS

A total of 102 pediatric patients with intracranial AVMs, including 52 (51%) ruptured cases, were identified. The mean patient age at presentation was 11.2 ± 4.4 years, and 51 (50%) patients were female. The mean nidus size was 2.66 ± 1.44 cm. The most common Spetzler-Martin grades were III (32%) and II (31%). Stereotactic radiosurgery was performed in 69.6% of patients. AVM obliteration was radiologically confirmed in 68 (72.3%) of 94 patients with follow-up imaging, on angiography in 50 (73.5%) patients and on magnetic resonance imaging in 18 (26.5%). AVM recurrence was identified in 1 (2.3%) of 43 patients with long-term surveillance imaging over a mean follow-up of 54.7 ± 38.9 months (range 2–153 months). This recurrence was identified in a boy who had presented with a ruptured AVM and had been surgically treated at 5 years of age. The AVM recurred 54 months after confirmed obliteration on surveillance digital subtraction angiography. Two other cases of presumed AVM recurrence following resection in young children were excluded from recurrence analysis because of incomplete sets of imaging available for review.

CONCLUSIONS

AVM recurrence following confirmed obliteration on imaging is a rare phenomenon, though it occurs more frequently in the pediatric population. Regular long-term follow-up with dedicated surveillance angiography is recommended even after obliteration following resection.

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Cover Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics

Frontal and occipital horn ratio is associated with multifocal intraparenchymal hemorrhages in neonatal shunted hydrocephalus

Soliman Oushy, Jonathon J. Parker, Kristen Campbell, Claire Palmer, Corbett Wilkinson, Nicholas V. Stence, Michael H. Handler, and David M. Mirsky

OBJECTIVE

Placement of a cerebrospinal fluid diversion device (i.e., shunt) is a routine pediatric neurosurgical procedure, often performed in the first weeks of life for treatment of congenital hydrocephalus. In the postoperative period, shunt placement may be complicated by subdural, catheter tract, parenchymal, and intraventricular hemorrhages. The authors observed a subset of infants and neonates who developed multifocal intraparenchymal hemorrhages (MIPH) following shunt placement and sought to determine any predisposing perioperative variables.

METHODS

A retrospective review of the electronic medical record at a tertiary-care children’s hospital was performed for the period 1998–2015. Inclusion criteria consisted of shunt placement, age < 30 days, and available pre- and postoperative brain imaging. The following data were collected and analyzed for each case: ventricular size ratios, laboratory values, clinical presentation, shunt and valve type, and operative timing and approach.

RESULTS

A total of 121 neonates met the inclusion criteria for the study, and 11 patients (9.1%) had MIPH following shunt placement. The preoperative frontal and occipital horn ratio (FOR) was significantly higher in the patients with MIPH than in those without (0.65 vs 0.57, p < 0.001). The change in FOR (∆FOR) after shunt placement was significantly greater in the MIPH group (0.14 vs 0.08, p = 0.04). Among neonates who developed MIPH, aqueductal stenosis was the most common etiology (45%). The type of shunt valve was associated with incidence of MIPH (p < 0.001). Preoperative clinical parameters, including head circumference, bulging fontanelle, and coagulopathy, were not significantly associated with development of MIPH.

CONCLUSIONS

MIPH represents an underrecognized complication of neonatal shunted hydrocephalus. Markers of severity of ventriculomegaly (FOR) and ventricular response to CSF diversion (∆FOR) were significantly associated with occurrence of MIPH. Choice of shunt and etiology of hydrocephalus were also significantly associated with MIPH. After adjusting for corrected age, etiology of hydrocephalus, and shunt setting, the authors found that ∆FOR after shunting was still associated with MIPH. A prospective study of MIPH prevention strategies and assessment of possible implications for patient outcomes is needed.

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Cover Journal of Neurosurgery

New-onset seizure during and after brain tumor excision: a risk assessment analysis

Soliman Oushy, Stefan H. Sillau, Douglas E. Ney, Denise M. Damek, A. Samy Youssef, Kevin O. Lillehei, and D. Ryan Ormond

OBJECTIVE

Prophylactic use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in seizure-naïve brain tumor patients remains a topic of debate. This study aimed to characterize a subset of patients at highest risk for new-onset perioperative seizures (i.e., intraoperative and postoperative seizures occurring within 30 days of surgery) who may benefit from prophylactic AEDs.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective case-control study of all adults who had undergone tumor resection or biopsy at the authors’ institution between January 1, 2004, and June 31, 2015. All patients with a history of preoperative seizures, posterior fossa tumors, pituitary tumors, and parasellar tumors were excluded. A control group was matched to the seizure patients according to age (± 0 years). Demographic data, clinical status, operative data, and postoperative course data were collected and analyzed.

RESULTS

Among 1693 patients who underwent tumor resection or biopsy, 549 (32.4%) had never had a preoperative seizure. Of these 549 patients, 25 (4.6%) suffered a perioperative seizure (Group 1). A total of 524 patients (95.4%) who remained seizure free were matched to Group 1 according to age (± 0 years), resulting in 132 control patients (Group 2), at an approximate ratio of 1:5. There were no differences between the patient groups in terms of age, sex, race, relationship status, and neurological deficits on presentation. Histological subtype (infiltrating glioma vs meningioma vs other, p = 0.041), intradural tumor location (p < 0.001), intraoperative cortical stimulation (p = 0.004), and extent of resection (less than gross total, p = 0.002) were associated with the occurrence of perioperative seizures.

CONCLUSIONS

While most seizure-naïve brain tumor patients do not benefit from perioperative seizure prophylaxis, such treatment should be considered in high-risk patients with supratentorial intradural tumors, in patients undergoing intraoperative cortical stimulation, and in patients in whom subtotal resection is likely.

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Cover Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics

Letter to the Editor. Delayed recurrence following radiographic cure of pediatric AVMs

David C. Lauzier, Samuel J. Cler, Anna L. Huguenard, Arindam R. Chatterjee, and Joshua W. Osbun

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Cover Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine

Change in pelvic incidence between the supine and standing positions in patients with bilateral sacroiliac joint vacuum signs

Anthony L. Mikula, Jeremy L. Fogelson, Soliman Oushy, Zachariah W. Pinter, Pierce A. Peters, Kingsley Abode-Iyamah, Arjun S. Sebastian, Brett Freedman, Bradford L. Currier, David W. Polly, and Benjamin D. Elder

OBJECTIVE

Pelvic incidence (PI) is a commonly utilized spinopelvic parameter in the evaluation and treatment of patients with spinal deformity and is believed to be a fixed parameter. However, a fixed PI assumes that there is no motion across the sacroiliac (SI) joint, which has been disputed in recent literature. The objective of this study was to determine if patients with SI joint vacuum sign have a change in PI between the supine and standing positions.

METHODS

A retrospective chart review identified patients with a standing radiograph, supine radiograph, and CT scan encompassing the SI joints within a 6-month period. Patients were grouped according to their SI joints having either no vacuum sign, unilateral vacuum sign, or bilateral vacuum sign. PI was measured by two independent reviewers.

RESULTS

Seventy-three patients were identified with an average age of 66 years and a BMI of 30 kg/m2. Patients with bilateral SI joint vacuum sign (n = 27) had an average absolute change in PI of 7.2° (p < 0.0001) between the standing and supine positions compared to patients with unilateral SI joint vacuum sign (n = 20) who had a change of 5.2° (p = 0.0008), and patients without an SI joint vacuum sign (n = 26) who experienced a change of 4.1° (p = 0.74). ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test showed a statistically significant difference in the change in PI between patients with the bilateral SI joint vacuum sign and those without an SI joint vacuum sign (p = 0.023). The intraclass correlation coefficient between the two reviewers was 0.97 for standing PI and 0.96 for supine PI (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with bilateral SI joint vacuum signs had a change in PI between the standing and supine positions, suggesting there may be increasing motion across the SI joint with significant joint degeneration.

Free access

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Cover Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine

Change in pelvic incidence between the supine and standing positions in patients with bilateral sacroiliac joint vacuum signs

Anthony L. Mikula, Jeremy L. Fogelson, Soliman Oushy, Zachariah W. Pinter, Pierce A. Peters, Kingsley Abode-Iyamah, Arjun S. Sebastian, Brett Freedman, Bradford L. Currier, David W. Polly, and Benjamin D. Elder

OBJECTIVE

Pelvic incidence (PI) is a commonly utilized spinopelvic parameter in the evaluation and treatment of patients with spinal deformity and is believed to be a fixed parameter. However, a fixed PI assumes that there is no motion across the sacroiliac (SI) joint, which has been disputed in recent literature. The objective of this study was to determine if patients with SI joint vacuum sign have a change in PI between the supine and standing positions.

METHODS

A retrospective chart review identified patients with a standing radiograph, supine radiograph, and CT scan encompassing the SI joints within a 6-month period. Patients were grouped according to their SI joints having either no vacuum sign, unilateral vacuum sign, or bilateral vacuum sign. PI was measured by two independent reviewers.

RESULTS

Seventy-three patients were identified with an average age of 66 years and a BMI of 30 kg/m2. Patients with bilateral SI joint vacuum sign (n = 27) had an average absolute change in PI of 7.2° (p < 0.0001) between the standing and supine positions compared to patients with unilateral SI joint vacuum sign (n = 20) who had a change of 5.2° (p = 0.0008), and patients without an SI joint vacuum sign (n = 26) who experienced a change of 4.1° (p = 0.74). ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test showed a statistically significant difference in the change in PI between patients with the bilateral SI joint vacuum sign and those without an SI joint vacuum sign (p = 0.023). The intraclass correlation coefficient between the two reviewers was 0.97 for standing PI and 0.96 for supine PI (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with bilateral SI joint vacuum signs had a change in PI between the standing and supine positions, suggesting there may be increasing motion across the SI joint with significant joint degeneration.