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Tobias Alecio Mattei and Ricardo Ramina

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Ricardo Ramina, William Ingunza, and Dimitrios Vonofakos

✓ A case of cavernous angioma in the right temporoparieto-occipital area is reported. The unusually large area of calcification and cystic formation presented problems in preoperative diagnosis. The tumor was treated successfully by subtotal excision.

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Felipe Constanzo, Bernardo Correa de Almeida Teixeira, Mauricio Coelho Neto, and Ricardo Ramina

Inadvertent laceration of the jugular bulb is a potentially serious complication of the retrosigmoid transmeatal approach to vestibular schwannomas. Here, the authors present the case of a 51-year-old woman with a right Hannover T4a vestibular schwannoma and bilateral high-riding jugular bulb, which was opened during drilling of the internal auditory canal (IAC). They highlight the immediate management of this complication, technical nuances for closing the defect without occluding the jugular bulb, and modifications of the standard technique needed to continue surgical resection.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.7.FOCVID2155

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Gustavo S. Jung, Joel Fernando Sanabria Duarte, Afonso H. de Aragão, Ronaldo Pereira Vosgerau, and Ricardo Ramina

The course of the facial nerve (FN) has been extensively investigated in patients with vestibular schwannomas (VSs). FN running dorsally to the tumor capsule accounts for less than 3% of the cases. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)–based fiber tracking helps to preoperatively identify the FN. During surgery, a higher risk of injury is associated with the dorsal location of the FN. The authors demonstrate the nuances and tricks to identify and preserve a dorsal displaced FN during resection of a large VS, T3b according to the Hannover classification, through the retrosigmoid-transmeatal approach.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.7.FOCVID2182

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Ricardo Ramina, Joao Jarney Maniglia, Yvens Barbosa Fernandes, Jorge Rizzato Paschoal, Leopoldo Nizan Pfeilsticker, Maurício Coelho Neto, and Guilherme Borges

Object

Jugular foramen tumors are rare skull base lesions that present diagnostic and complex management problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a series of patients with jugular foramen tumors who were surgically treated in the past 16 years, and to analyze the surgical technique, complications, and outcomes.

Methods

The authors retrospectively studied 102 patients with jugular foramen tumors treated between January 1987 and May 2004. All patients underwent surgery with a multidisciplinary method combining neurosurgical and ear, nose, and throat techniques. Preoperative embolization was performed for paragangliomas and other highly vascularized lesions. To avoid postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and to improve cosmetic results, the surgical defect was reconstructed with specially developed vascularized flaps (temporalis fascia, cervical fascia, sternocleidomastoid muscle, and temporalis muscle). A saphenous graft bypass was used in two patients with tumor infiltrating the internal carotid artery (ICA). Facial nerve reconstruction was performed with grafts of the great auricular nerve or with 12th/seventh cranial nerve anastomosis. Residual malignant and invasive tumors were irradiated after partial removal.

The most common tumor was paraganglioma (58 cases), followed by schwannomas (17 cases) and meningiomas (10 cases). Complete excision was possible in 45 patients (77.5%) with paragangliomas and in all patients with schwannomas. The most frequent and also the most dangerous surgical complication was lower cranial nerve deficit. This deficit occurred in 10 patients (10%), but it was transient in four cases. Postoperative facial and cochlear nerve paralysis occurred in eight patients (8%); spontaneous recovery occurred in three of them. In the remaining five patients the facial nerve was reconstructed using great auricular nerve grafts (three cases), sural nerve graft (one case), and hypoglossal/facial nerve anastomosis (one case). Four patients (4%) experienced postoperative CSF leakage, and four (4.2%) died after surgery. Two of them died of aspiration pneumonia complicated with septicemia. Of the remaining two, one died of pulmonary embolism and the other of cerebral hypoxia caused by a large cervical hematoma that led to tracheal deviation.

Conclusions

Paragangliomas are the most common tumors of the jugular foramen region. Surgical management of jugular foramen tumors is complex and difficult. Radical removal of benign jugular foramen tumors is the treatment of choice, may be curative, and is achieved with low mortality and morbidity rates. Larger lesions can be radically excised in one surgical procedure by using a multidisciplinary approach. Reconstruction of the skull base with vascularized myofascial flaps reduces postoperative CSF leaks. Postoperative lower cranial nerves deficits are the most dangerous complication.

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Ricardo Ramina, Tobias A. Mattei, Marília G. Sória, Erasmo B. da Silva Jr., André G. Leal, Maurício C. Neto, and Yvens B. Fernandes

Object

The authors provide a detailed review of the surgical management of trigeminal schwannomas (TSs) and also discuss the best surgical approach based on the surgical anatomy and tumor extension.

Methods

A series of 17 patients with TSs who were surgically treated between 1987 and 2008 at the authors' institution is reported. The lesions were small (< 3 cm) in 2, medium (between 3 and 4 cm) in 5, large (> 4 cm) in 6, and giant (> 5 cm) in 4 cases. Preoperative symptoms included trigeminal hypesthesia (53%), facial pain (53%), headaches (35.3%), hearing impairment (17.6%), seizures (17.6%), diplopia (11.8%), ataxia (11.8%), and hemiparesis and increased intracranial pressure with papilledema (5.9%). The mean follow-up duration was 10.5 years (121.6 months), with an average of 0.8 patients per year.

Results

Total tumor excision was possible in 16 patients, with no surgery-related deaths. Postoperative trigeminal anesthesia was observed in 7; trigeminal motor function was preserved in 7. Two developed cerebrospinal fluid leakage, 2 presented with mild facial palsy, and 1 patient with neurofibromatosis Type 2 had recurrence of the tumor, which was uneventfully removed. Of the 9 who reported facial pain, only 1 remained symptomatic postoperatively.

Conclusions

The best treatment for TSs is complete microsurgical removal. Postoperative preservation of trigeminal nerve function is possible when resection of the lesion is performed at well-established skull base neurosurgical centers. Although good results have been reported with radiosurgery, no cure can be obtained with this therapeutic modality. Instead, this treatment should be reserved only for nonresectable and residual tumors within the cavernous sinus.