Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 16 items for

  • Author or Editor: Pietro Spennato x
  • Refine by Level: All x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

nlm-article

Alessia Imperato, Alessandra Marini, Pietro Spennato, Giuseppe Mirone, and Giuseppe Cinalli

The authors present a pediatric case of a pineoblastoma treated with gross-total removal through an occipital interhemispheric transtentorial approach (OITA). The child presented with acute hydrocephalus that was treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and tumor biopsy through a single burr hole. Histology revealed a pineoblastoma. Microsurgical total removal was performed 3 months after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. OITA was chosen on the basis of the tumor’s location below the Herophilus-Galen line of sight. In this video, the authors show the positioning, the operating devices, the approach, and the microsurgical dissection, indicating all the neurovascular structures encountered.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.4.FOCVID2122.

Open access

nlm-article

Giovanni Miccoli, Domenico Cicala, Pietro Spennato, Alessia Imperato, Claudio Ruggiero, and Giuseppe Cinalli

BACKGROUND

Cavum trigeminale cephaloceles (CTCs) are characterized by a cystic appearance and extension of the posterolateral aspect of Meckel’s cave into the superomedial portion of the petrous apex. A possible mechanism is a transient or sustained increase of intracranial pressure transmitted to Meckel’s cave, leading to its secondary herniation, in the presence of predisposing local factors. The majority of CTCs are incidental findings. Among symptomatic cases, headache, trigeminal neuralgia, cerebrospinal fluid leak, vertigo, ataxia, facial numbness, hearing loss, diplopia, and other visual disturbances have been described.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors describe a case of an 18-month-old male patient referred to their hospital with drowsiness, vomiting, left cranial nerve VI palsy, and papilledema. Neuroradiological investigation revealed the presence of a CTC with a swollen aspect of the left pontine hemisection and indirect signs of intracranial hypertension. The patient was managed with implantation of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

LESSONS

CTCs are rare lesions that are difficult to recognize on neuroimaging, in which they can be mistaken for tumoral or inflammatory lesions. The most frequent asymptomatic forms should be considered as “leave-me-alone” lesions. In cases of intracranial hypertension, according to a supposed theory on the origin of CTCs, the authors recommend treating only the intracranial hypertension instead of performing more invasive surgical procedures, especially in pediatric patients.

Free access

nlm-article

Giuseppe Cinalli, Alessia Imperato, Giuseppe Mirone, Giuliana Di Martino, Giancarlo Nicosia, Claudio Ruggiero, Ferdinando Aliberti, and Pietro Spennato

OBJECTIVE

Neuroendoscopic removal of intraventricular tumors is difficult and time consuming because of the lack of an effective decompression system that can be used through the working channel of the endoscope. The authors report on the utilization of an endoscopic ultrasonic aspirator in the resection of intraventricular tumors.

METHODS

Twelve pediatric patients (10 male, 2 female), ages 1–15 years old, underwent surgery via a purely endoscopic approach using a Gaab rigid endoscope and endoscopic ultrasonic aspirator. Two patients presented with intraventricular metastases from high-grade tumors (medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor), 2 with subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (associated with tuberous sclerosis), 2 with low-grade intraparaventricular tumors, 4 with suprasellar tumors (2 craniopharyngiomas and 2 optic pathway gliomas), and 2 with pineal tumors (1 immature teratoma, 1 pineal anlage tumor). Hydrocephalus was present in 5 cases. In all patients, the endoscopic trajectory and ventricular access were guided by electromagnetic neuronavigation. Nine patients underwent surgery via a precoronal bur hole while supine. In 2 cases, surgery was performed through a frontal bur hole at the level of the hairline. One patient underwent surgery via a posterior parietal approach to the trigone while in a lateral position. The endoscopic technique consisted of visualization of the tumor, ventricular washing to dilate the ventricles and to control bleeding, obtaining a tumor specimen with biopsy forceps, and ultrasonic aspiration of the tumor. Bleeding was controlled with irrigation, monopolar coagulation, and a thulium laser.

RESULTS

In 7 cases, the resection was total or near total (more than 90% of lesion removed). In 5 cases, the resection was partial. Histological evaluation of the collected material (withdrawn using biopsy forceps and aspirated with an ultrasonic aspirator) was diagnostic in all cases. The duration of surgery ranged from 30 to 120 minutes. One case was complicated by subdural hygroma requiring a subduro-peritoneal shunt implant.

CONCLUSIONS

In this preliminary series, endoscopic ultrasonic aspiration proved to be a safe and reliable method for achieving extensive decompression or complete removal in the management of intra- and/or paraventricular lesions in pediatric patients.

Open access

nlm-article

Giuseppe Cinalli, Maria Rosaria Scala, Alessandra Marini, Alessia Imperato, Giuseppe Mirone, and Pietro Spennato

In this video, the authors present an interhemispheric transcallosal transchoroidal approach to a pineal mass in a 15-year-old boy. He received emergency endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), then an endoscopic biopsy that revealed an immature teratoma. Surgical removal was selected. The mass was located very high in the posterior third ventricle, hidden behind the splenium of the corpus callosum and the vein of Galen, so an interhemispheric transcallosal approach followed by a complete dissection of the whole choroidal fissure was chosen and allowed complete removal of the tumor. Microsurgical dissection is presented, showing clearly in detail all the neurovascular structures encountered.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.4.FOCVID2126.

Restricted access

nlm-article

Carmine Mottolese, Alexandru Szathmari, Carole Ginguene, Emile Simon, and Anne Claire Ricci-Franchi

Object

In this study the authors conducted a retrospective evaluation of the effectiveness of endoscopic aqueductoplasty, performed alone or accompanied by placement of a stent, in the treatment of an isolated fourth ventricle (IFV) in seven patients afflicted with loculated hydrocephalus after a hemorrhage or infection.

Methods

Seven children with symptomatic IFV and membranous aqueductal stenosis underwent endoscopic aqueductoplasty alone or combined with placement of a stent in the cerebral aqueduct. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 10 months. The mean duration of follow up was 26 months. In all patients a supratentorial shunt had already been implanted, and in five patients neuroendoscopy had already been performed because other isolated compartments had been present inside the ventricular system. Aqueductoplasty alone was performed in three patients and aqueductoplasty and aqueductal stent placement in four. A precoronal approach was performed in five patients and a suboccipital approach in two. Signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension resolved in all cases. Stent placement was successful in all five cases, resulting in clinical and neuroimaging-confirmed improvements in the IFV. Restenosis of the aqueduct occurred in two patients in whom stents had not been placed. In one of these patients restenosis was managed by an endoscopic procedure, during which the aqueduct was reopened and a stent implanted; in the other patient a shunt was placed in the fourth ventricle. Hydrocephalus was controlled by a single shunt in six cases (86%) and by a double shunt in one case.

Conclusions

Endoscopic placement of a stent in the aqueduct is more effective in preventing the repeated occlusion of the aqueduct than aqueductoplasty alone and should be indicated as the initial treatment in each case of compatible anatomy.

Free access

nlm-article

Pietro Spennato, Carmela Chiaramonte, Domenico Cicala, Vittoria Donofrio, Manlio Barbarisi, Anna Nastro, Giuseppe Mirone, Vincenzo Trischitta, and Giuseppe Cinalli

OBJECTIVE

Intraventricular choroid plexus cysts are unusual causes of acute hydrocephalus in children. Radiological diagnosis of intraventricular choroid plexus cysts is difficult because they have very thin walls and fluid contents similar to CSF and can go undetected on routine CT studies.

METHODS

This study reports the authors' experience with 5 patients affected by intraventricular cysts originating from the choroid plexus. All patients experienced acute presentation with rapid neurological deterioration, sometimes associated with hypothalamic dysfunction, and required urgent surgery. In 2 cases the symptoms were intermittent, with spontaneous remission and sudden clinical deteriorations, reflecting an intermittent obstruction of the CSF pathway.

RESULTS

Radiological diagnosis was difficult in these cases because a nonenhanced CT scan revealed only triventricular hydrocephalus, with slight lateral ventricle asymmetry in all cases. MRI with driven-equilibrium sequences and CT ventriculography (in 1 case) allowed the authors to accurately diagnose the intraventricular cysts that typically occupied the posterior part of the third ventricle, occluding the aqueduct and at least 1 foramen of Monro. The patients were managed by urgent implantation of an external ventricular drain in 1 case (followed by endoscopic surgery, after completing a diagnostic workup) and by urgent endoscopic surgery in 4 cases. Endoscopic surgery allowed the shrinkage and near-complete removal of the cysts in all cases. Use of neuronavigation and a laser were indispensable. All procedures were uneventful, resulting in restoration of normal neurological conditions. Long-term follow-up (> 2 years) was available for 2 patients, and no complications or recurrences occurred.

CONCLUSIONS

This case series emphasizes the necessity of an accurate and precise identification of the possible causes of triventricular hydrocephalus. Endoscopic surgery can be considered the ideal treatment of choroid plexus cysts in children.

Restricted access

nlm-article

Pietro Spennato, Giuseppe Cinalli, Claudio Ruggiero, Ferdinando Aliberti, Vincenzo Trischitta, Emilio Cianciulli, and Giuseppe Maggi

Object

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of data obtained in a series of 30 patients suffering from multiloculated hydrocephalus and treated endoscopically. The goal of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of neuroendoscopic treatment as an alternative to the placement of multiple shunts to relieve intracranial hypertension, to simplify the shunt system, and to reduce the high rate of shunt revision.

Methods

The endoscopic procedures included intraventricular septum fenestration, aqueductoplasty, Monro foram-inoplasty, and third ventriculostomy. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A included 23 children in whom a shunt was already in place at the time of endoscopy, and Group B included seven children in whom a shunt had never been placed.

The control of hydrocephalus by a single shunt placement or the absence of a shunt was achieved in 25 (83.3%) of 30 children. In Group A, five children no longer had shunts, 14 needed a single shunt, three required two shunts, and one required three shunts. The mean preendoscopy shunt revision rate in this group decreased from 2.07/year to 0.35/ year following the endoscopic procedure. Seven patients required endoscopic reoperations (endoscopic reoperation rate 0.31/year, total reoperation rate [shunt revisions plus endoscopic reoperation] 0.66/year). In Group B, three children did not require shunts, three needed a single shunt, and one required two shunts. Two patients required repeated endoscopic surgery (endoscopic reoperation rate 0.19/year), and two patients required shunt revisions (shunt revision rate 0.07/year) (total operation rate 0.26/year).

Conclusions

Neuroendoscopic procedures are a valid alternative to shunt revision in the management of multiloculated hydrocephalus. Early diagnosis comprising close monitoring with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and early treatment are the keys of success.

Restricted access

nlm-article

Giancarlo Nicosia, Pietro Spennato, Ferdinando Aliberti, Daniele Cascone, Lucia Quaglietta, Maria Elena Errico, Mario Muto, Franco Ionna, and Giuseppe Cinalli

Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is a rare congenital pigmented neoplasm of neural crest origin, locally aggressive, growing rapidly and developing during the 1st year of life. It most commonly arises from the maxilla, cranial vault, and mandible. Occasionally, it exhibits malignant behavior with local lymph nodes involvement. Cases misdiagnosed and left untreated for a long time can present challenges due to the tumor mass and infiltration. In these cases, adjuvant chemotherapy can be extremely helpful before radical excision.

Authors of this report describe a 4-year-old boy from a developing country who was referred to their hospital with an ulcerated bulging lesion in the midline/right parietooccipital region, extending to the right laterocervical and parotid regions, resulting in significant craniofacial deformation. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a highly enhancing tumor with intracranial and extracranial development extending mainly at the level of the right parietooccipital region, with lytic and hypertrophic alterations of the skull. The patient was managed with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy and radically resective surgery on metastatic lymph nodes and the primary tumor of the skull. Scheduled radiotherapy was not performed, according to the parents' wishes. The patient returned to his native country where the lesion recurred, and he ultimately died approximately 10 months after the end of the treatment.

The literature indicates that tumor removal alone has been the treatment of choice in most isolated cases, but in cases of highly advanced tumor with involvement of the skull and cervical lymph nodes, it is preferable to proceed with preoperative chemotherapy with the aim of reducing the tumor volume, allowing better technical conditions for complete surgical removal, and decreasing the risk of local recurrence or metastasis.

Restricted access

nlm-article

Giuseppe Cinalli, Pietro Spennato, Luciano Savarese, Claudio Ruggiero, Ferdinando Aliberti, Lorenzo Cuomo, Emilio Cianciulli, and Giuseppe Maggi

Object.

In this study the authors conducted a retrospective evaluation of the effectiveness of endoscopic aqueductoplasty, performed alone or accompanied by placement of a stent, in the treatment of an isolated fourth ventricle (IFV) in seven patients afflicted with loculated hydrocephalus after a hemorrhage or infection.

Methods.

Seven children with symptomatic IFV and membranous aqueductal stenosis underwent endoscopic aqueductoplasty alone or combined with placement of a stent in the cerebral aqueduct. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 10 months. The mean duration of follow up was 26 months. In all patients a supratentorial shunt had already been implanted, and in five patients neuroendoscopy had already been performed because other isolated compartments had been present inside the ventricular system. Aqueductoplasty alone was performed in three patients and aqueductoplasty and aqueductal stent placement in four. A precoronal approach was performed in five patients and a suboccipital approach in two. Signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension resolved in all cases. Stent placement was successful in all five cases, resulting in clinical and neuroimaging-confirmed improvements in the IFV. Restenosis of the aqueduct occurred in two patients in whom stents had not been placed. In one of these patients restenosis was managed by an endoscopic procedure, during which the aqueduct was reopened and a stent implanted; in the other patient a shunt was placed in the fourth ventricle. Hydrocephalus was controlled by a single shunt in six cases (86%) and by a double shunt in one case.

Conclusions.

Endoscopic placement of a stent in the aqueduct is more effective in preventing the repeated occlusion of the aqueduct than aqueductoplasty alone and should be indicated as the initial treatment in each case of compatible anatomy.

Restricted access

nlm-article

Donncha F. O'Brien, Mohsen Javadpour, David R. Collins, Pietro Spennato, and Conor L. Mallucci

Object

The authors analyzed the role of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) as a primary treatment for hydrocephalus and also as an alternative to shunt revision for malfunctioning and infected ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts.

Methods

A retrospective analysis of clinical notes, operation records, and magnetic resonance imaging procedures before and after ventriculostomy was performed to determine the success or failure of ETVs in 170 patients who underwent a primary ETV and in 63 patients who underwent an ETV for shunt malfunction (secondary ETV). The patients' data were derived from an endoscopy database inaugurated in 1998. Of the 63 patients with shunt malfunctions, 49 patients (78%) had mechanical malfunction only and 14 patients (22%) had both infection and malfunction.

Seventy-four percent (126 of 170) of patients in the primary ETV group and 70% (44 of 63) of patients in the secondary ETV had a successful outcome at the time of analysis. The success rate for ETVs in cases involving a mechanical shunt malfunction alone was 67% (33 of 49) compared with 79% (11 of 14) in those cases involving an infected shunt.

The origin of the hydrocephalus in the primary and shunt malfunction groups was evaluated as a factor contributing to the success of the ETV. In the primary group, patients with a history of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and meningitis as a cause for hydrocephalus had a poor rate of success after the ETV—27% (four of 15) and 0% (none of two), respectively. This pattern was not seen in the series involving shunt malfunction after the ETV, with 71% (five of seven) and 75% (three of four) of cases having a hydrocephalus origin of IVH and meningitis, respectively, in which a successful outcome was attained. A two-way mixed-model analysis of variance yielded a significant effect for origin (p = 0.011), a significant interaction between group and origin (p = 0.028), and a marginally nonsignificant effect of group (p = 0.0686). More than 95% of failures were evident within 1 month of the ETV in both groups. Complications were minimal in both groups, and there were no procedure-related deaths.

Conclusions

An ETV is a safe procedure with few complications and a high success rate in both primary and secondary groups. An ETV to address shunt malfunction, unlike a primary ETV, is not particularly origin specific. A bonus is its success in dealing with infected shunts. Most failures will be evident early, but long-term follow up is vital.