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Liyong Sun, Jian Ren, and Hongqi Zhang

Craniocervical junction dural arteriovenous fistula (CCJDAVF) is a rare and unique type of intracranial DAVF with complex neurovascular anatomy, making it difficult to identify the arterialized vein during operation. The authors report the case of a 50-year-old male who presented with symptoms of venous hypertensive myelopathy. Angiography demonstrated a left CCJDAVF. The fistula was successfully disconnected via a suboccipital midline approach. The selective indocyanine green videoangiography (SICG-VA) technique was applied to distinguish the fistula site and arterialized vein from adjacent normal vessels. Favorable clinical and angiographic outcomes were attained. The detailed operative technique, surgical nuances, and utility of SICG-VA are illustrated in this video atlas.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/GJYl_jOJQqU.

Free access

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Liyong Sun, Hongqi Zhang, and Jian Ren

The authors demonstrate the case of a 16-year-old girl with a large symptomatic occipital arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The staged embolization was performed to downgrade the AVM from Spetzler-Martin (S-M) Grade IV (Supplementary S-M Grade 7) to Grade III (Supplementary S-M Grade 5). The patient developed a subacute progressive visual field defect after the final time of embolization. MRI revealed an enlarged draining venous ectasia of the AVM compressing the visual cortex. Postoperatively, good radiological results were achieved, and the patient reported an improvement in her symptoms. The detailed operative technique and surgical nuances (including the surgical features of the AVM postembolization) of the marginal dissection and removal are illustrated in this video atlas.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/2MZq5patcJI.

Free access

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Sun Liyong, Yuhai Bao, Jiantao Liang, Mingchu Li, and Jian Ren

The posterior interhemispheric approach is a versatile approach to access lesions of the pineal region, posterior incisural space, posterior region of third ventricle, and adjacent structures. We demonstrate the case of a 26-year-old woman with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus caused by a meningioma at the posteromedial tentorial incisura. Gross-total removal of the tumor was successfully achieved via a posterior interhemispheric transtentorial approach. The patient reported an immediate and significant symptomatic improvement after surgery. The detailed operative technique and surgical nuances, including the surgical corridor, tentorium incision, tumor dissection and removal are illustrated in this video atlas.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/nSNyjQKl7aE.

Open access

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Gang Song, Liyong Sun, Yuhai Bao, and Jiantao Liang

The main objectives of microsurgery for vestibular schwannoma are total tumor removal and preservation of facial and cochlear nerve function. For giant tumors, total tumor removal and facial nerve function preservation are challenging. The semisitting position has some advantages. In this video the authors show the removal of a giant vestibular schwannoma with the patient in a semisitting position. They demonstrate the advantages of the semisitting technique, such as the two-handed microsurgical dissection technique and a clear operative field. Finally, a small residual tumor in the internal auditory canal was removed by endoscopy. The patient’s facial function was House-Brackmann grade I at discharge.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.7.FOCVID2176

Restricted access

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Hong-Qi Zhang, Tong Chen, Shao-Shuai Wu, Liang-Hong Teng, Yong-Zhong Li, Li-Yong Sun, Zhi-Ping Zhang, De-Yu Guo, De-Hong Lu, and Feng Ling

Object

The authors undertook this study to establish an animal model to investigate the pathophysiological changes of venous hypertensive myelopathy (VHM).

Methods

This study was a randomized control animal study with blinded evaluation. The VHM model was developed in 24 adult New Zealand white rabbits by means of renal artery and vein anastomosis and trapping of the posterior vena cava; 12 rabbits were subjected to sham surgery. The rabbits were investigated by spinal function evaluation, abdominal aortic angiography, spinal MRI, and pathological examination of the spinal cord at different follow-up stages.

Results

Twenty-two (91.67%) of 24 model rabbits survived the surgery and postoperative period. The patency rate of the arteriovenous fistula was 95.45% in these 22 animals. The model rabbits had significantly decreased motor and sensory hindlimb function as well as abnormalities at the corresponding segments of the spinal cord. Pathological examination showed dilation and hyalinization of the small blood vessels, perivascular and intraparenchymal lymphocyte infiltration, proliferation of glial cells, and neuronal degeneration. Electron microscopic examination showed loose lamellar structure of the myelin sheath, increased numbers of mitochondria in the thin myelinated fibers, and pyknotic neurons.

Conclusions

This model of VHM is stable and repeatable. Exploration of the sequential changes in spinal cord and blood vessels has provided improved understanding of this pathology, and the model may have potential for improving therapeutic results.