For “minimally invasive” approaches to a deep-lying skull base lesion, the bone opening must be precisely placed and adequately wide to accomplish the surgical goal. Surgical rehearsal in virtual reality (VR) can generate navigation-integrated augmented reality (AR) templates to ensure precise surgical openings.
In this video, the authors used AR templates for the transpalpebral, transorbital approach for intradural tumors. VR renderings of patient-specific anatomy were used in surgical rehearsal. The optimal openings were saved and, at surgery, projected into the eyepiece of the navigation-tracked microscope. The template enhanced the planning of the incision and soft-tissue exposure and guided the drill toward the target.
The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21172