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Paul W. Gidley, Joel Z. Passer, Joshua C. Page, and Franco DeMonte

The middle fossa approach for the resection of small acoustic neuromas is a viable, but underutilized treatment modality with the goal of hearing preservation. The authors aim to demonstrate this approach and its nuances through this video presentation. A 38-year-old man presented with an incidentally discovered small, intracanalicular acoustic neuroma that was initially observed, but growth was noted. The patient had good hearing, and therefore a hearing preservation approach was offered. A gross-total resection was achieved, and the patient maintained good hearing postoperatively. This video demonstrates relevant anatomy, surgical indications, technical aspects of resection, including reconstruction, and postoperative outcomes.

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Gautam U. Mehta, Joel Z. Passer, Shaan M. Raza, Betty Y. S. Kim, Shirley Y. Su, Michael E. Kupferman, Ehab Y. Hanna, and Franco DeMonte


Sinonasal malignancies that extend to the anterior skull base frequently require neurosurgical intervention. The development of techniques for craniofacial resection revolutionized the management of these neoplasms, but modern and long-term data are lacking, particularly those related to the incorporation of endoscopic techniques and novel adjuvant chemotherapeutics into management schema. The present study was performed to better define the utility of surgical management and to determine factors related to outcome.


Patients who underwent surgery between 1993 and 2020 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Only patients with greater than 6 months of clinical and radiological follow-up were included. Outcome measures included progression, survival, and treatment-related complications.


Two hundred twenty-five patients were included. The mean clinical follow-up was 6.5 years. The most common histological diagnosis was olfactory neuroblastoma (33%). Overall, metastatic disease and brain invasion were present in 8% and 19% of patients, respectively, at the time of surgery. A lumbar drain was used in 54% of patients. When stratified by decade, higher-stage disease at surgery became more frequent over time (15% of patients had metastatic disease in the 3rd decade of the study period vs 4% in the 1st decade). Despite the inclusion of patients with progressively higher-stage disease, median overall survival (OS) remained stable in each decade at approximately 10 years (p = 0.16). OS was significantly worse in patients with brain invasion (p = 0.006) or metastasis at the time of surgery (p = 0.014). Complications occurred after 28% of operations, but typically resulted in no long-term negative sequelae. Use of a lumbar drain was a significant predictor of complications (p = 0.02). Permanent ophthalmological disabilities were observed after 4% of surgical procedures. One patient died during the perioperative period. Finally, major complications (Clavien-Dindo grade ≥ IIIb) decreased from 27% of patients in the 1st decade to 10% in the 3rd decade (p = 0.007).


The surgical management of sinonasal malignancies with anterior skull base involvement is effective and generally safe. Surgical management, however, is only one facet of the overall multimodal management paradigms created to optimize patient outcomes. Survival outcomes have remained stable despite more extensive disease at surgery in patients who have presented in recent decades. The safety of such surgery has improved over time owing to the incorporation of endoscopic surgical techniques and the avoidance of lumbar spinal drainage with open resection.