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Cover Neurosurgical Focus: Video

Treatment of an acutely ruptured complex fusiform middle cerebral artery aneurysm with flow diverting stenting and adjunctive coil embolization

Guilherme Barros and Michael R. Levitt

This technical video demonstrates the treatment of an acutely ruptured, large, complex left fusiform middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm with endovascular flow diversion with adjunctive coiling in a 27-year-old female. Two telescoping flow-diverting stents (Pipeline Flex) were placed, with partial coiling of a saccular portion of the aneurysm. Technical challenges, alternative treatment, intraoperative and postoperative antiplatelet management, vasospasm treatment, and clinical and radiographic follow-up are described.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2022.7.FOCVID2249

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Cover Journal of Neurosurgery

Editorial. Perspective on flow diverting stents for posterior circulation aneurysms

Guilherme Barros and Louis J. Kim

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Cover Neurosurgical Focus

Magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging in cerebrovascular diseases

Christopher C. Young, Robert H. Bonow, Guilherme Barros, Mahmud Mossa-Basha, Louis J. Kim, and Michael R. Levitt

Cerebrovascular diseases manifest as abnormalities of and disruption to the intracranial vasculature and its capacity to carry blood to the brain. However, the pathogenesis of many cerebrovascular diseases begins in the vessel wall. Traditional luminal and perfusion imaging techniques do not provide adequate information regarding the differentiation, onset, or progression of disease. Intracranial high-resolution MR vessel wall imaging (VWI) has emerged as an invaluable technique for understanding and evaluating cerebrovascular diseases. The location and pattern of contrast enhancement in intracranial VWI provides new insight into the inflammatory etiology of cerebrovascular diseases and has potential to permit earlier diagnosis and treatment. In this report, technical considerations of VWI are discussed and current applications of VWI in vascular malformations, blunt cerebrovascular injury/dissection, and steno-occlusive cerebrovascular vasculopathies are reviewed.

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Cover Neurosurgical Focus

De novo epilepsy after microsurgical resection of brain arteriovenous malformations

Rajeev D. Sen, Dominic Nistal, Margaret McGrath, Guilherme Barros, Varadaraya Satyanarayan Shenoy, Laligam N. Sekhar, Michael R. Levitt, and Louis J. Kim

OBJECTIVE

Seizures are the second most common presenting symptom of brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) after hemorrhage. Risk factors for preoperative seizures and subsequent seizure control outcomes have been well studied. There is a paucity of literature on postoperative, de novo seizures in initially seizure-naïve patients who undergo resection. Whereas this entity has been documented after craniotomy for a wide variety of neurosurgically treated pathologies including tumors, trauma, and aneurysms, de novo seizures after bAVM resection are poorly studied. Given the debilitating nature of epilepsy, the purpose of this study was to elucidate the incidence and risk factors associated with de novo epilepsy after bAVM resection.

METHODS

A retrospective review of patients who underwent resection of a bAVM over a 15-year period was performed. Patients who did not present with seizure were included, and the primary outcome was de novo epilepsy (i.e., a seizure disorder that only manifested after surgery). Demographic, clinical, and radiographic characteristics were compared between patients with and without postoperative epilepsy. Subgroup analysis was conducted on the ruptured bAVMs.

RESULTS

From a cohort of 198 patients who underwent resection of a bAVM during the study period, 111 supratentorial ruptured and unruptured bAVMs that did not present with seizure were included. Twenty-one patients (19%) developed de novo epilepsy. One-year cumulative rates of developing de novo epilepsy were 9% for the overall cohort and 8.5% for the cohort with ruptured bAVMs. There were no significant differences between the epilepsy and no-epilepsy groups overall; however, the de novo epilepsy group was younger in the cohort with ruptured bAVMs (28.7 ± 11.7 vs 35.1 ± 19.9 years; p = 0.04). The mean time between resection and first seizure was 26.0 ± 40.4 months, with the longest time being 14 years. Subgroup analysis of the ruptured and endovascular embolization cohorts did not reveal any significant differences. Of the patients who developed poorly controlled epilepsy (defined as Engel class III–IV), all had a history of hemorrhage and half had bAVMs located in the temporal lobe.

CONCLUSIONS

De novo epilepsy after bAVM resection occurs at an annual cumulative risk of 9%, with potentially long-term onset. Younger age may be a risk factor in patients who present with rupture. The development of poorly controlled epilepsy may be associated with temporal lobe location and a delay between hemorrhage and resection.

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Cover Journal of Neurosurgery

Clipping of previously coiled cerebral aneurysms: efficacy, safety, and predictors in a cohort of 111 patients

Badih Daou, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Guilherme Barros, Lina Ya'qoub, John Do, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Robert H. Rosenwasser, and Pascal Jabbour

OBJECTIVE

With the increasing number of aneurysms treated with endovascular coiling, more recurrences are being encountered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of microsurgical clipping in the treatment of recurrent, previously coiled cerebral aneurysms and to identify risk factors that can affect the outcomes of this procedure.

METHODS

One hundred eleven patients with recurrent aneurysms whose lesions were managed by surgical clipping between January 2002 and October 2014 were identified. The rates of aneurysm occlusion, retreatment, complications, and good clinical outcome were retrospectively determined. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify factors associated with these outcomes.

RESULTS

The mean patient age was 50.5 years, the mean aneurysm size was 7 mm, and 97.3% of aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation. The mean follow-up was 22 months. Complete aneurysm occlusion, as assessed by intraoperative angiography, was achieved in 97.3% of aneurysms (108 of 111 patients). Among patients, 1.8% (2 of 111 patients) had a recurrence after clipping. Retreatment was required in 4.5% of patients (5 of 111) after clipping. Major complications were observed in 8% of patients and mortality in 2.7%. Ninety percent of patients had a good clinical outcome. Aneurysm size (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.08–1.7; p = 0.009) and location in the posterior circulation were significantly associated with higher complications. All 3 patients who had coil extraction experienced a postoperative stroke. Aneurysm size (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.02–1.45; p = 0.025) and higher number of interventions prior to clipping (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.3–21.4; p = 0.019) were significant predictors of poor outcome. An aneurysm size > 7 mm was a significant predictor of incomplete obliteration and retreatment (p = 0.018).

CONCLUSIONS

Surgical clipping is safe and effective in treating recurrent, previously coiled cerebral aneurysms. Aneurysm size, location, and number of previous coiling procedures are important factors to consider in the management of these aneurysms.

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Cover Journal of Neurosurgery

Predictors of hospital-associated complications prolonging ICU stay in patients with low-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

Nikolaos Mouchtouris, Michael J. Lang, Kaitlyn Barkley, Guilherme Barros, Justin Turpin, Ahmad Sweid, Robert M. Starke, Nohra Chalouhi, Pascal Jabbour, Robert H. Rosenwasser, and Stavropoula Tjoumakaris

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to determine the predictors of late neurological and hospital-acquired medical complications (HACs) in patients with low-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective study of 424 patients with low-grade aSAH admitted to their institution from 2008 to 2015. Data collected included patient comorbidities, Hunt and Hess (HH) grade, ICU length of stay (LOS), and complications. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the predictors for neurological and hospital-associated complications.

RESULTS

Out of 424 patients, 50 (11.8%) developed neurological complications after the first week, with a mean ICU stay of 16.3 ± 6.5 days. Of the remaining 374 patients without late neurological complications, 83 (22.2%) developed late HACs with a mean LOS of 15.1 ± 7.6 days, while those without medical complications stayed 11.8 ± 6.2 days (p = 0.001). Of the 83 patients, 55 (66.3%) did not have any HACs in the first week. Smoking (p = 0.062), history of cardiac disease (p = 0.043), HH grade III (p = 0.012), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (p = 0.012), external ventricular drain (EVD) placement (p = 0.002), and early pneumonia/urinary tract infection (UTI)/deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (p = 0.001) were independently associated with late HACs. Logistic regression showed early pneumonia/UTI/DVT (p = 0.026) and increased HH grade (p = 0.057) to be significant risk factors for late medical complications.

CONCLUSIONS

While an extended ICU admission allows closer monitoring, low-grade aSAH patients develop HACs despite being at low risk for neurological complications. The characteristics of low-grade aSAH patients who would benefit from early discharge are reported in detail.

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Cover Journal of Neurosurgery

Beta-blocker therapy and impact on outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a cohort study

Nohra Chalouhi, Badih Daou, Toshimasa Okabe, Robert M. Starke, Richard Dalyai, Cory D. Bovenzi, Eliza Claire Anderson, Guilherme Barros, Adam Reese, Pascal Jabbour, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Robert Rosenwasser, Walter K. Kraft, and Fred Rincon

OBJECTIVE

Cerebral vasospasm (cVSP) is a frequent complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), with a significant impact on outcome. Beta blockers (BBs) may blunt the sympathetic effect and catecholamine surge associated with ruptured cerebral aneurysms and prevent cardiac dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between preadmission BB therapy and cVSP, cardiac dysfunction, and in-hospital mortality following aSAH.

METHODS

This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with aSAH who were treated at a tertiary high-volume neurovascular referral center. The exposure was defined as any preadmission BB therapy. The primary outcome was cVSP assessed by serial transcranial Doppler with any mean flow velocity ≥ 120 cm/sec and/or need for endovascular intervention for medically refractory cVSP. Secondary outcomes were cardiac dysfunction (defined as cardiac troponin-I elevation > 0.05 μg/L, low left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] < 40%, or LV wall motion abnormalities [LVWMA]) and in-hospital mortality.

RESULTS

The cohort consisted of 210 patients treated between February 2009 and September 2010 (55% were women), with a mean age of 53.4 ± 13 years and median Hunt and Hess Grade III (interquartile range III–IV). Only 13% (27/210) of patients were exposed to preadmission BB therapy. Compared with these patients, a higher percentage of patients not exposed to preadmission BBs had transcranial Doppler-mean flow velocity ≥ 120 cm/sec (59% vs 22%; p = 0.003). In multivariate analyses, lower Hunt and Hess grade (OR 3.9; p < 0.001) and preadmission BBs (OR 4.5; p = 0.002) were negatively associated with cVSP. In multivariate analysis, LVWMA (OR 2.7; p = 0.002) and low LVEF (OR 1.1; p = 0.05) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Low LVEF (OR 3.9; p = 0.05) independently predicted medically refractory cVSP. The in-hospital mortality rate was higher in patients with LVWMA (47.4% vs 14.8%; p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The study data suggest that preadmission therapy with BBs is associated with lower incidence of cVSP after aSAH. LV dysfunction was associated with higher medically refractory cVSP and in-hospital mortality. BB therapy may be considered after aSAH as a cardioprotective and cVSP preventive therapy.

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Cover Journal of Neurosurgery

Revascularization and functional outcomes after mechanical thrombectomy: an update to key metrics

Nikolaos Mouchtouris, Fadi Al Saiegh, Evan Fitchett, Carrie E. Andrews, Michael J. Lang, Ritam Ghosh, Richard F. Schmidt, Nohra Chalouhi, Guilherme Barros, Hekmat Zarzour, Victor Romo, Nabeel Herial, Pascal Jabbour, Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris, Robert H. Rosenwasser, and M. Reid Gooch

OBJECTIVE

The advent of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) has become an effective option for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in addition to tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). With recent advances in device technology, MT has significantly altered the hospital course and functional outcomes of stroke patients. The authors’ goal was to establish the most up-to-date reperfusion and functional outcomes with the evolution of MT technology.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective study of 403 patients who underwent MT for ischemic stroke at their institution from 2010 to 2017. They collected data on patient comorbidities, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on arrival, tPA administration, revascularization outcomes, and functional outcomes on discharge.

RESULTS

In 403 patients, the mean NIHSS score on presentation was 15.8 ± 6.6, with 195 (48.0%) of patients receiving tPA prior to MT. Successful reperfusion (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score 2B or 3) was achieved in 84.4%. Hemorrhagic conversion with significant mass effect was noted in 9.9% of patients. The median lengths of ICU and hospital stay were 3.0 and 7.0 days, respectively. Functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score 0–2) was noted in 125 (31.0%) patients, while inpatient mortality occurred in 43 (10.7%) patients.

CONCLUSIONS

As MT has established acute ischemic stroke as a neurosurgical disease, there is a pressing need to understand the hospital course, hospital- and procedure-related complications, and outcomes for this new patient population. The authors provide a detailed account of key metrics for MT with the latest device technology and identify the predictors of unfavorable outcomes and inpatient mortality.

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2017 AANS Annual Scientific Meeting Los Angeles, CA • April 22–26, 2017

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Cover Journal of Neurosurgery

Oral Presentations 2016 AANS Annual Scientific Meeting Chicago, IL • April 30–May 4, 2016

Published online April 1, 2016; DOI: 10.3171/2016.4.JNS.AANS2016abstracts