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Cover Neurosurgical Focus

Does stroke etiology influence outcome in the posterior circulation? An analysis of 107 consecutive acute basilar occlusion thrombectomies

Roberta K. Sefcik, Daniel A. Tonetti, Shashvat M. Desai, Stephanie M. Casillo, Michael J. Lang, Ashutosh P. Jadhav, and Bradley A. Gross

OBJECTIVE

Acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) harbors a more guarded prognosis after thrombectomy compared with anterior circulation large-vessel occlusion. Whether this is a function of a greater proportion of atherosclerotic/intrinsic lesions is not well studied. The authors aimed to elucidate the prevalence and predictors of intracranial intrinsic atherosclerotic disease in patients with acute BAO and to compare angiographic and clinical outcomes between patients with BAO secondary to embolic versus intrinsic disease.

METHODS

A prospectively maintained stroke database was reviewed for all patients presenting between January 2013 and December 2019 to a tertiary care academic comprehensive stroke center with acute, nontandem BAO. Patient data were extracted, subdivided by stroke mechanism and treatment modality (embolic [thrombectomy only] and intrinsic [thrombectomy + stenting]), and angiographic and clinical results were compared.

RESULTS

Of 107 patients, 83 (78%) had embolic occlusions (thrombectomy only) and 24 (22%) had intrinsic disease (thrombectomy + stenting). There was no significant difference in patient age, presenting National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, time to presentation, selected medical comorbidities (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and atrial fibrillation), prior stroke, and posterior circulation Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score. Patients with intrinsic disease were more likely to be active smokers (50% vs 26%, p = 0.04) and more likely to be male (88% vs 48%, p = 0.001). Successful recanalization, defined as a modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI) grade of 2b or 3, was achieved in 90% of patients and did not differ significantly between the embolic versus intrinsic groups (89% vs 92%, p > 0.99). A 90-day good outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score 0–2) was found in 37% of patients overall and did not differ significantly between the two groups (36% vs 41%, p = 0.41). Mortality was 40% overall and did not significantly differ between groups (41% vs 36%, p = 0.45).

CONCLUSIONS

In the current study, demographic and clinical results for acute BAO showed that compared with intrinsic disease, thromboembolic disease is a more common mechanism of acute BAO, with 78% of patients undergoing thrombectomy alone. However, there was no significant difference in revascularization and outcome results between patients with embolic disease and those with intrinsic disease.

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Cover Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics

Ruptured intracranial aneurysm in a patient with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease

Jennifer L. Perez, Michael M. McDowell, Benjamin Zussman, Ashutosh P. Jadhav, Yosuke Miyashita, Patrick McKiernan, and Stephanie Greene

Aneurysmal rupture can result in devastating neurological consequences and can be complicated by comorbid disease processes. Patients with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) have a low rate of reported aneurysms, but this may be due to the relative high rate of end-stage illnesses early in childhood. Authors here report the case of a 10-year-old boy with ARPKD who presented with a Hunt and Hess grade V subarachnoid hemorrhage requiring emergency ventriculostomy, embolization, and decompressive craniectomy. Despite initial improvements in his neurological status, the patient succumbed to hepatic failure. Given the catastrophic outcomes of subarachnoid hemorrhage in young patients, early radiographic screening in those with ARPKD may be warranted.

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Cover Journal of Neurosurgery

Letter to the Editor. Intracranial stenting in acute stroke

Bradley A. Gross, Ashutosh P. Jadhav, Brian T. Jankowitz, and Tudor G. Jovin

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Cover Neurosurgical Focus: Video

Challenging access during flow diversion treatment of a giant cavernous ICA aneurysm

Visish M. Srinivasan, Joelle N. Hartke, Joshua S. Catapano, Ethan A. Winkler, Ashutosh P. Jadhav, Felipe C. Albuquerque, and Andrew F. Ducruet

A man in his 60s presented with severe ophthalmoparesis and loss of visual acuity in his right eye. He was found to have a giant aneurysm of the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA). Treatment with a flow diverter was recommended. The aneurysm caused matricidal outflow restriction of the ICA. Microwire and microcatheter access through the aneurysm was challenging, requiring multiple wires, stentriever reduction, and more. Eventually, a construct of 3 Pipeline embolization devices was created across the aneurysm. Troubleshooting access across giant aneurysms is an important part of treatment. Informed consent was obtained for the procedure and for publication.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2022.7.FOCVID2258

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Cover Journal of Neurosurgery

A multi-institutional analysis of the untreated course of cerebral dural arteriovenous fistulas

Bradley A. Gross, Felipe C. Albuquerque, Cameron G. McDougall, Brian T. Jankowitz, Ashutosh P. Jadhav, Tudor G. Jovin, and Rose Du

OBJECTIVE

The rarity of cerebral dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) has precluded analysis of their natural history across large cohorts. Investigators from a considerable proportion of the few reports that do exist have evaluated heterogeneous groups of untreated and partially treated lesions. In the present study, the authors exclusively evaluated the untreated course of dAVFs across a multi-institutional data set to delineate demographic, angiographic, and natural history data.

METHODS

A multi-institutional database of dAVFs was queried for demographic and angiographic data as well as untreated disease course. After dAVFs were stratified by Djindjian type, annual nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit (NHND) and hemorrhage rates were derived, as were risk factors for each. A multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression model was used to calculate hazard ratios.

RESULTS

Two hundred ninety-five dAVFs had at least 1 month of untreated follow-up. For 126 Type I dAVFs, there were no episodes of NHND or hemorrhage over 177 lesion-years. Respective annualized NHND and hemorrhage rates were 4.5% and 3.4% for Type II, 6.0% and 4.0% for Type III, and 4.5% and 9.1% for Type IV dAVFs. The respective annualized NHND and hemorrhage rates were 2.3% and 2.9% for asymptomatic Type II–IV dAVFs, 23.1% and 3.3% for dAVFs presenting with NHND, and 0% and 46.2% for lesions presenting with hemorrhage. On multivariate analysis, NHND presentation (HR 11.49, 95% CI 3.19–63) and leptomeningeal venous drainage (HR 5.03, 95% CI 0.42–694) were significant risk factors for NHND; hemorrhagic presentation (HR 17.67, 95% CI 2.99–117) and leptomeningeal venous drainage (HR 10.39, 95% CI 1.11–1384) were significant risk factors for hemorrhage.

CONCLUSIONS

All Type II–IV dAVFs should be considered for treatment. Given the high risk of rebleeding, lesions presenting with NHND and/or hemorrhage should be treated expediently.

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Cover Journal of Neurosurgery

Cost of coils for intracranial aneurysms: clinical decision analysis for implementation of a capitation model

Gurpreet S. Gandhoke, Yash K. Pandya, Ashutosh P. Jadhav, Tudor Jovin, Robert M. Friedlander, Kenneth J. Smith, and Brian T. Jankowitz

OBJECTIVE

The price of coils used for intracranial aneurysm embolization has continued to rise despite an increase in competition in the marketplace. Coils on the US market range in list price from $500 to $3000. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential cost savings with the use of a price capitation model.

METHODS

The authors built a clinical decision analytical tree and compared their institution’s current expenditure on endovascular coils to the costs if a capped-price model were implemented. They retrospectively reviewed coil and cost data for 148 patients who underwent coil embolization from January 2015 through September 2016. Data on the length and number of coils used in all patients were collected and analyzed. The probabilities of a treated aneurysm being ≤/> 10 mm in maximum dimension, the total number of coils used for a case being ≤/> 5, and the total length of coils used for a case being ≤/> 50 cm were calculated, as was the mean cost of the currently used coils for all possible combinations of events with these probabilities. Using the same probabilities, the authors calculated the expected value of the capped-price strategy in comparison with the current one. They also conducted multiple 1-way sensitivity analyses by applying plausible ranges to the probabilities and cost variables. The robustness of the results was confirmed by applying individual distributions to all studied variables and conducting probabilistic sensitivity analysis.

RESULTS

Ninety-five (64%) of 148 patients presented with a rupture, and 53 (36%) were treated on an elective basis. The mean aneurysm size was 6.7 mm. A total of 1061 coils were used from a total of 4 different providers. Companies A (72%) and B (16%) accounted for the major share of coil consumption. The mean number of coils per case was 7.3. The mean cost per case (for all coils) was $10,434. The median total length of coils used, for all coils, was 42 cm. The calculated probability of treating an aneurysm less than 10 mm in maximum dimension was 0.83, for using 5 coils or fewer per case it was 0.42, and for coil length of 50 cm or less it was 0.89. The expected cost per case with the capped policy was calculated to be $4000, a cost savings of $6564 in comparison with using the price of Company A. Multiple 1-way sensitivity analyses revealed that the capped policy was cost saving if its cost was less than $10,500. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the lowest cost difference between current and capped policies was $2750.

CONCLUSIONS

In comparison with the cost of coils from the authors’ current provider, their decision model and probabilistic sensitivity analysis predicted a minimum $407,000 to a maximum $1,799,976 cost savings in 148 cases by adapting the capped-price policy for coils.

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Cover Neurosurgical Focus

Delays in presentation and mortality among Black patients with mechanical thrombectomy after large-vessel stroke at a US hospital

Joshua S. Catapano, Kavelin Rumalla, Visish M. Srinivasan, Candice L. Nguyen, Dara S. Farhadi, Brandon Ngo, Caleb Rutledge, Redi Rahmani, Jacob F. Baranoski, Tyler S. Cole, Ashutosh P. Jadhav, Andrew F. Ducruet, and Felipe C. Albuquerque

OBJECTIVE

The incidence and severity of stroke are disproportionately greater among Black patients. In this study, the authors sought to examine clinical outcomes among Black versus White patients after mechanical thrombectomy for stroke at a single US institution.

METHODS

All patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy at a single center from January 1, 2014, through March 31, 2020, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were grouped based on race, and demographic characteristics, preexisting conditions, clinical presentation, treatment, and stroke outcomes were compared. The association of race with mortality was analyzed in multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders.

RESULTS

In total, 401 patients (233 males) with a reported race of Black (n = 28) or White (n = 373) underwent mechanical thrombectomy during the study period. Tobacco use was more prevalent among Black patients (43% vs 24%, p = 0.04), but there were no significant differences between the groups with respect to insurance, coronary artery disease, diabetes, illicit drug use, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia. The mean time from stroke onset to hospital presentation was significantly greater among Black patients (604.6 vs 333.4 minutes) (p = 0.007). There were no differences in fluoroscopy time, procedural success (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction grade 2b or 3), hospital length of stay, or prevalence of hemicraniectomy. In multivariable analysis, Black race was strongly associated with higher mortality (32.1% vs 14.5%, p = 0.01). The disparity in mortality rates resolved after adjusting for the average time from stroke onset to presentation (p = 0.14).

CONCLUSIONS

Black race was associated with an increased risk of death after mechanical thrombectomy for stroke. The increased risk may be associated with access-related factors, including delayed presentation to stroke centers.

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Cover Neurosurgical Focus

Electroencephalography for detection of vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a retrospective analysis and systematic review

Lea Scherschinski, Joshua S. Catapano, Katherine Karahalios, Stefan W. Koester, Dimitri Benner, Ethan A. Winkler, Christopher S. Graffeo, Visish M. Srinivasan, Ruchira M. Jha, Ashutosh P. Jadhav, Andrew F. Ducruet, Felipe C. Albuquerque, and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

Good functional outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are often dependent on early detection and treatment of cerebral vasospasm (CVS) and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). There is growing evidence that continuous monitoring with cranial electroencephalography (cEEG) can predict CVS and DCI. Therefore, the authors sought to assess the value of continuous cEEG monitoring for the detection of CVS and DCI in aSAH.

METHODS

The cerebrovascular database of a quaternary center was reviewed for patients with aSAH and cEEG monitoring between January 1, 2017, and July 31, 2019. Demographic data, cardiovascular risk factors, Glasgow Coma Scale score at admission, aneurysm characteristics, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical record. Patient data were retrospectively analyzed for DCI and angiographically assessed CVS. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and odds ratio for cEEG, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCDS), CTA, and DSA in detecting DCI and angiographic CVS were calculated. A systematic literature review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines querying the PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Web of Science, and Embase databases.

RESULTS

A total of 77 patients (mean age 60 years [SD 15 years]; female sex, n = 54) were included in the study. Continuous cEEG monitoring detected DCI and angiographically assessed CVS with specificities of 82.9% (95% CI 66.4%–93.4%) and 94.4% (95% CI 72.7%–99.9%), respectively. The sensitivities were 11.1% (95% CI 3.1%–26.1%) for DCI (n = 71) and 18.8% (95% CI 7.2%–36.4%) for angiographically assessed CVS (n = 50). Furthermore, TCDS detected angiographically determined CVS with a sensitivity of 87.5% (95% CI 71.0%–96.5%) and specificity of 25.0% (95% CI 7.3%–52.4%). In patients with DCI, TCDS detected vasospasm with a sensitivity of 85.7% (95% CI 69.7%–95.2%) and a specificity of 18.8% (95% CI 7.2%–36.4%). DSA detected vasospasm with a sensitivity of 73.9% (95% CI 51.6%–89.8%) and a specificity of 47.8% (95% CI 26.8%–69.4%).

CONCLUSIONS

The study results suggest that continuous cEEG monitoring is highly specific in detecting DCI as well as angiographically assessed CVS. More prospective studies with predetermined thresholds and endpoints are needed to assess the predictive role of cEEG in aSAH.