Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 14 items for

  • Author or Editor: Andrew L. A. Garton x
  • Refine by Level: All x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

nlm-article

Cover Journal of Neurosurgery

Erratum. Extent of resection, molecular signature, and survival in 1p19q-codeleted gliomas

Andrew L. A. Garton, Connor J. Kinslow, and Tony J. C. Wang

Open access

nlm-article

Cover Neurosurgical Focus: Video

Flow diversion for cerebral aneurysms

Joseph A. Carnevale, Jacob L. Goldberg, Gary Kocharian, Andrew L. A. Garton, Alexander Ramos, Justin Schwarz, Srikanth Reddy Boddu, Y. Pierre Gobin, and Jared Knopman

The treatment of cerebral aneurysms includes open microsurgical options (e.g., clipping, trapping/bypass) and evolving endovascular techniques. Following the landmark trials that propelled endovascular treatment to the forefront, flow diversion has shown high aneurysm cure rates with minimal complications. Flow diversion stents are placed in the parent vessel, redirecting blood flow from the aneurysm, promoting reendothelization across the neck, and resulting in complete occlusion of the aneurysm. As a result, flow diversion has become increasingly used as the primary treatment for unruptured aneurysms; however, its applications are being pushed to new frontiers. Here, the authors present three cases showcasing the treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow diversion.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2022.7.FOCVID2253

Open access

nlm-article

Cover Journal of Neurosurgery: Case Lessons

Complications in craniosynostosis surgery in patients with rickets: illustrative case and systematic review of literature

Myles N. LaValley, Kyle Zappi, Sergio Wesley Guadix, Alexandra M. Giantini-Larsen, Andrew L. A. Garton, Linda A. Heier, Thomas A. Imahiyerobo, and Caitlin E. Hoffman

BACKGROUND

Craniosynostosis (CSS) is the premature fusion of calvarial sutures associated with identified genetic mutations or secondary to alterations in intracranial pressure, brain, or bone growth patterns. Of the metabolic etiologies implicated in CSS, X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR) is the most common, with dysfunctional bone mineralization leading to progressive hyperostosis and delayed synostosis. There is a paucity of literature discussing the unique surgical considerations for XLHR-related CSS.

OBSERVATIONS

A 26-month-old male with XLHR-related sagittal CSS underwent cranial vault remodeling (CVR). Surgery was complicated by the presence of diploic hypertrophy with significant intraoperative estimated blood loss (EBL). EBL greatly exceeded reference ranges for CVR in all-cause CSS. As a result, the surgical goals were modified and the complete planned procedure aborted. Subsequent review of preoperative imaging revealed multiple fine vascular lacunae within the bone. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify reported complications relating to surgical intervention for rickets-associated CSS.

LESSONS

Future considerations for patients with XLHR-related CSS should emphasize awareness of metabolic risk factors with associated complications, and the need for selection of approach and operative management techniques to avoid EBL. Further research is required to elucidate underlying mechanisms and determine whether the encountered phenomenon is characteristic across this patient population and potentially minimized by preoperative medical therapy.

Open access

nlm-article

Cover Journal of Neurosurgery: Case Lessons

Intracranial hypotension due to ventral thoracic dural tear secondary to osteophyte complex: resolution after transdural thoracic microdiscectomy with dural repair. Illustrative case

Bharti Kewlani, Andrew L. A. Garton, Ibrahim Hussain, J. Levi Chazen, Matthew S. Robbins, Ali A. Baaj, and Jeffrey P. Greenfield

BACKGROUND

Intracranial hypotension (IH) manifests with orthostatic headaches secondary to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia. Common iatrogenic etiologies include lumbar punctures and spinal surgery. Although much rarer, structural defects such as osteophytes and herniated calcified discs can violate dural integrity, resulting in CSF leak.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors reported the case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with progressively worsening orthostatic headaches. During an extensive examination, magnetic resonance imaging of her thoracic spine revealed a cervicothoracic ventral epidural collection of CSF, prompting a dynamic computed tomography myelogram, which not only helped to confirm severe cerebral hypotension but also suggested underlying pathology of a dorsally projecting disc osteophyte complex at T2–3. Conservative and medical management failed to alleviate symptoms, and a permanent surgical cure was eventually sought. The patient underwent a transdural thoracic discectomy with dural repair, which resulted in resolution of her symptoms.

LESSONS

Clear guidelines regarding the management strategy of IH secondary to disc osteophyte complexes are yet to be established. A thorough literature review noted only 24 reported cases between 1998 and 2019, in which 13 patients received surgery. There is a 46% symptom resolution rate with conservative management, lower than that for iatrogenic etiologies. For patients in whom conservative management failed, surgical intervention proved effective in resolving symptoms, with a success rate of 92.3%.

Free access

nlm-article

Cover Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics

Letter to the Editor. Pediatric colloid cysts

Alexandra M. Giantini-Larsen, Rafael Uribe-Cardenas, Francis N. Villamater, Andrew L. A. Garton, and Mark M. Souweidane

Free access

nlm-article

Cover Neurosurgical Focus

Fourth ventricular subarachnoid stent for Chiari malformation type I–associated persistent syringomyelia

Rachael K. Han, Mauricio P. Medina, Alexandra M. Giantini-Larsen, John K. Chae, Amanda Cruz, Andrew L. A. Garton, and Jeffrey P. Greenfield

OBJECTIVE

Syringomyelia (syrinx) associated with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) is commonly managed with posterior fossa decompression, which can lead to resolution in most cases. A persistent syrinx postdecompression is therefore uncommon and challenging to address. In the setting of radiographically adequate decompression with persistent syrinx, the authors prefer placing fourth ventricular subarachnoid stents that span the craniocervical junction particularly when intraoperative observation reveals arachnoid plane scarring. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a fourth ventricle stent for CM-I–associated persistent syringomyelia, assess dynamic changes in syrinx dimensions, and report stent-reduction durability, clinical outcomes, and procedure-associated complications.

METHODS

The authors performed a single-institution, retrospective review of patients who underwent fourth ventricular subarachnoid stent placement for persistent CM-I–associated syringomyelia following a prior posterior fossa decompression. The authors’ institutional Chiari database contains 600 cases with 149 decompressions for CM-I–associated syringomyelia, of which 13 met criteria for inclusion. Data on patient demographics, clinical presentation and outcomes, and MRI findings were collected. The maximal syrinx diameter was estimated by calculating the area of an elliptical cross-section in the largest axial plane from preoperative, immediately postoperative, and late postoperative T2-weighted MR images.

RESULTS

All 13 patients experienced a significant decrease in mean syrinx area from the preoperative to the late postoperative MRI (mean syrinx diameter 114.1 ± 81.8 mm2 vs 24.5 ± 23.8 mm2, p < 0.001). The mean time until late postoperative MRI was 19.7 months (range 2.0–70.7 months). The syrinx area reduced on average by 75.0% ± 23.9% at the time of the last postoperative scan. Syrinx resolution was variable, with 4 patients (30.8%) achieving near-complete resolution (> 90%, grade III reduction), 7 patients (50%) having 50%–90% reduction (grade II), and 2 patients (14.3%) having < 50% decrease (grade I). One patient experienced catheter migration into the left brachium pontis with an associated cyst at the tip of the catheter that decreased in size on follow-up imaging.

CONCLUSIONS

Placement of fourth ventricular subarachnoid stents spanning the craniocervical junction in patients with persistent CM-I–associated syringomyelia after posterior fossa decompression is a safe therapeutic option and significantly reduced the mean syrinx area, with a greater reductive effect seen over longer follow-up periods.

Free access

nlm-article

Cover Journal of Neurosurgery

Long-term tumor control after endoscopic endonasal resection of craniopharyngiomas: comparison of gross-total resection versus subtotal resection with radiation therapy

Saniya S. Godil, Umberto Tosi, Mina Gerges, Andrew L. A. Garton, Georgiana A. Dobri, Ashutosh Kacker, Abtin Tabaee, Vijay K. Anand, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Surgical management of craniopharyngiomas (CPAs) is challenging. Controversy exists regarding the optimal goals of surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes of patients who underwent gross-total resection with the outcomes of those who underwent subtotal resection of their CPA via an endoscopic endonasal approach.

METHODS

From a prospectively maintained database of all endoscopic endonasal approaches performed at Weill Cornell Medicine, only patients with CPAs with > 3 years of follow-up after surgery were included. The primary endpoint was radiographic progression. Data were collected on baseline demographics, imaging, endocrine function, visual function, and extent of resection.

RESULTS

A total of 44 patients with a mean follow-up of 5.7 ± 2.6 years were included. Of these patients, 14 (31.8%) had prior surgery. GTR was achieved in 77.3% (34/44) of all patients and 89.5% (34/38) of patients in whom it was the goal of surgery. Preoperative tumor volume < 10 cm3 was highly predictive of GTR (p < 0.001). Radiation therapy was administered within the first 3 months after surgery in 1 (2.9%) of 34 patients with GTR and 7 (70%) of 10 patients with STR (p < 0.001). The 5-year recurrence-free/progression-free survival rate was 75.0% after GTR and 25.0% after STR (45% in subgroup with STR plus radiotherapy; p < 0.001). The time to recurrence after GTR was 30.2 months versus 13 months after STR (5.8 months in subgroup with STR plus radiotherapy; p < 0.001). Patients with GTR had a lower rate of visual deterioration and higher rate of return to work or school compared with those with STR (p = 0.02). Patients with GTR compared to STR had a lower rate of CSF leakage (0.0% vs 30%, p = 0.001) but a higher rate of diabetes insipidus (85.3% vs 50%, p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

GTR, which is possible to achieve in smaller tumors, resulted in improved tumor control, better visual outcome, and better functional recovery but a higher rate of diabetes insipidus compared with STR, even when the latter was supplemented with postoperative radiation therapy. GTR should be the goal of craniopharyngioma surgery, when achievable with minimal morbidity.

Free access

nlm-article

Cover Journal of Neurosurgery

Extent of resection, molecular signature, and survival in 1p19q-codeleted gliomas

Andrew L. A. Garton, Connor J. Kinslow, Ali I. Rae, Amol Mehta, Susan C. Pannullo, Rajiv S. Magge, Rohan Ramakrishna, Guy M. McKhann, Michael B. Sisti, Jeffrey N. Bruce, Peter Canoll, Simon K. Cheng, Adam M. Sonabend, and Tony J. C. Wang

OBJECTIVE

Genomic analysis in neurooncology has underscored the importance of understanding the patterns of survival in different molecular subtypes within gliomas and their responses to treatment. In particular, diffuse gliomas are now principally characterized by their mutation status (IDH1 and 1p/19q codeletion), yet there remains a paucity of information regarding the prognostic value of molecular markers and extent of resection (EOR) on survival. Furthermore, given the modern emphasis on molecular rather than histological diagnosis, it is important to examine the effect of maximal resection on survival in all gliomas with 1p/q19 codeletions, as these will now be classified as oligodendrogliomas under the new WHO guidelines.

The objectives of the present study were twofold: 1) to assess the association between EOR and survival for patients with oligodendrogliomas in the National Cancer Database (NCDB), which includes information on mutation status, and 2) to demonstrate the same effect for all patients with 1p/19q codeleted gliomas in the NCDB.

METHODS

The NCDB was queried for all cases of oligodendroglioma between 2004 and 2014, with follow-up dates through 2016. The authors found 2514 cases of histologically confirmed oligodendrogliomas for the final analysis of the effect of EOR on survival. Upon further query, 1067 1p/19q-codeleted tumors were identified in the NCDB. Patients who received subtotal resection (STR) or gross-total resection (GTR) were compared to those who received no tumor debulking surgery. Univariable and multivariable analyses of both overall survival and cause-specific survival were performed.

RESULTS

EOR was associated with increased overall survival for both histologically confirmed oligodendrogliomas and all 1p/19q-codeleted–defined tumors (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Tumor grade, location, and size covaried predictably with EOR. When evaluating tumors by each classification system for predictors of overall survival, facility setting, age, comorbidity index, grade, location, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy were all shown to be significantly associated with overall survival. STR and GTR were independent predictors of improved survival in historically classified oligodendrogliomas (HR 0.83, p = 0.18; HR 0.69, p = 0.01, respectively) and in 1p/19q-codeleted tumors (HR 0.49, p < 0.01; HR 0.43, p < 0.01, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

By using the NCDB, the authors have demonstrated a side-by-side comparison of the survival benefits of greater EOR in 1p/19q-codeleted gliomas.

Restricted access

nlm-article

Cover Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics

Abstracts for the 2013 Annual Meeting of The American Society of Pediatric Neurosurgeons

Restricted access

nlm-article

Cover Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics

Abstracts for the 2014 Annual Meeting of The American Society of Pediatric Neurosurgeons