Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for

  • Author or Editor: Peter T. Kan x
  • Refine by Level: All x
  • Refine by Access: user x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

nlm-article

Cover Journal of Neurosurgery

Readmission following extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery in the United States: nationwide rates, causes, risk factors, and volume-driven outcomes

Kavelin Rumalla, Visish M. Srinivasan, Monica Gaddis, Peter Kan, Michael T. Lawton, and Jan-Karl Burkhardt

OBJECTIVE

Extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery remains an important treatment option for patients with moyamoya disease (MMD), intracranial arteriosclerotic disease (ICAD) with symptomatic stenosis despite the best medical management, and complex aneurysms. The therapeutic benefit of cerebral bypass surgery depends on optimal patient selection and the minimization of periprocedural complications. The nationwide burden of readmissions and associated complications following EC-IC bypass surgery has not been previously described. Therefore, the authors sought to analyze a nationwide database to describe the national rates, causes, risk factors, complications, and morbidity associated with readmission following EC-IC bypass surgery for MMD, ICAD, and aneurysms.

METHODS

The Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD) was queried for the years 2010–2014 to identify patients who had undergone EC-IC bypass for MMD, medically failed symptomatic ICAD, or unruptured aneurysms. Predictor variables included demographics, preexisting comorbidities, indication for surgery, and hospital bypass case volume. A high-volume center (HVC) was defined as one that performed 10 or more cases/year. Outcome variables included perioperative stroke, discharge disposition, length of stay, total hospital costs, and readmission (30 days, 90 days). Multivariable analysis was used to identify predictors of readmission and to study the effect of treatment at HVCs on quality outcomes.

RESULTS

In total, 2500 patients with a mean age of 41 years were treated with EC-IC bypass surgery for MMD (63.1%), ICAD (24.5%), or unruptured aneurysms (12.4%). The 30- and 90-day readmission rates were 7.5% and 14.0%, respectively. Causes of readmission included new stroke (2.5%), wound complications (2.5%), graft failure (1.5%), and other infection (1.3%). In the multivariable analysis, risk factors for readmission included Medicaid/self-pay (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.4, vs private insurance), comorbidity score (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1–1.4, per additional comorbidity), and treatment at a non-HVC (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.0). Treatment at an HVC (17% of patients) was associated with significantly lower rates of nonroutine discharge dispositions (13.4% vs 26.7%, p = 0.004), ischemic stroke within 90 days (0.8% vs 2.9%, p = 0.03), 30-day readmission (3.9% vs 8.2%, p = 0.03), and 90-day readmission (8.6% vs 15.2%, p = 0.01). These findings were confirmed in a multivariable analysis. The authors estimate that centralization to HVCs may result in 333 fewer nonroutine discharges (50% reduction), 12,000 fewer hospital days (44% reduction), 165 fewer readmissions (43%), and a cost savings of $15.3 million (11% reduction).

CONCLUSIONS

Readmission rates for patients after EC-IC bypass are comparable with those after other common cranial procedures and are primarily driven by preexisting comorbidities, socioeconomic status, and treatment at low-volume centers. Periprocedural complications, including stroke, graft failure, and wound complications, occurred at the expected rates, consistent with those in prior clinical series. The centralization of care may significantly reduce perioperative complications, readmissions, and hospital resource utilization.

Free access

nlm-article

Cover Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics

Endoscopic ultrasonic aspiration of an intraparenchymal hematoma in a newborn

Melissa A. LoPresti, Eric A. Goethe, James C. Bayley, Brandon Bertot, Peter T. Kan, and Sandi Lam

Neonatal intracerebral hemorrhage is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Treatment is largely conservative, though interventions to evacuate intraventricular and intraparenchymal hematomas (IPHs) have been applied. Endoscopic ultrasonic aspiration for the treatment of IPH has increasingly been shown to be a useful strategy in adults; however, it has not been studied in children, and the technology has been more commonly applied to intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Here, the authors describe, to the best of their knowledge, the first use of endoscopic ultrasonic aspiration for IPH in a newborn.

An 8-week-old female presented with IPH secondary to left M3 aneurysm rupture, which was treated with coil embolization for aneurysm securement and vessel sacrifice, followed by IPH evacuation using endoscopic ultrasonic aspiration. Through applying this approach in a newborn, the authors gained technical insight not previously reported in the application of this technique in similar cases in adults or in cases of IVH. They highlight this case to share learning points and technical challenges regarding the application of endoscopic ultrasonic aspiration in a newborn along with learning points for imaging and visualization. Endoscopic ultrasonic aspiration can be used to treat IPH in select newborns. Further study is needed to improve efficacy and ease when applying this approach in very young patients.

Open access

nlm-article

Cover Neurosurgical Focus: Video

Introduction. Flow diversion for cerebral aneurysms

Peter T. Kan, Elad I. Levy, Felipe C. Albuquerque, and Mandy Jo Binning

Free access

nlm-article

Cover Journal of Neurosurgery

The neurosurgical marriage: evaluating the interplay of work life and home life from the perspective of partners of neurosurgical residents

William J. Ares, Brian T. Jankowitz, Peter Kan, Alejandro M. Spiotta, Peter Nakaji, Jason D. Wilson, Kyle M. Fargen, Edwin Ramos, Jody Leonardo, and Ramesh Grandhi

OBJECTIVE

Burnout and work-life balance have been noted to be problems for residents across all fields of medicine, including neurosurgery. No studies to date have evaluated how these factors may contribute to issues outside of the hospital, specifically residents’ home lives. This study aimed to evaluate the interplay between home life and work life of neurosurgical residents, specifically from the point of view of residents’ significant others.

METHODS

Online surveys were distributed to the significant others of neurosurgical residents at 12 US neurosurgery residencies. Residents’ partners were asked about relationship dynamics, their views on neurosurgery residency (work-life balance and burnout), and their views of neurosurgery as a career.

RESULTS

The majority of residents’ significant others (84%) reported being satisfied with their relationship. Significant others who reported dissatisfaction with their relationship were more likely to report frustration with work-life balance and more likely to report their resident partner as having higher levels of burnout.

CONCLUSIONS

From the perspective of neurosurgery residents’ significant others, higher perceived levels of burnout and lower satisfaction with work-life balance are correlated with lower levels of relationship satisfaction. These findings speak to the complex interplay of work life and home life and can be used to inform future interventions into improving the quality of life for both the resident and the significant other.

Free access

nlm-article

Cover Neurosurgical Focus

Middle meningeal artery embolization treatment of nonacute subdural hematomas in the elderly: a multiinstitutional experience of 151 cases

Evan Joyce, Michael T. Bounajem, Jonathan Scoville, Ajith J. Thomas, Christopher S. Ogilvy, Howard A. Riina, Omar Tanweer, Elad I. Levy, Alejandro M. Spiotta, Bradley A. Gross, Brian T. Jankowitz, C. Michael Cawley, Alexander A. Khalessi, Aditya S. Pandey, Andrew J. Ringer, Ricardo Hanel, Rafael A. Ortiz, David Langer, Michael R. Levitt, Mandy Binning, Philipp Taussky, Peter Kan, and Ramesh Grandhi

OBJECTIVE

The incidence of already common chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs) and other nonacute subdural hematomas (NASHs) in the elderly is expected to rise as the population ages over the coming decades. Surgical management is associated with recurrence and exposes elderly patients to perioperative and operative risks. Middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization offers the potential for a minimally invasive, less morbid treatment in this age group. The clinical and radiographic outcomes after MMA embolization treatment for NASHs have not been adequately described in elderly patients. In this paper, the authors describe the clinical and radiographic outcomes after 151 cases of MMA embolization for NASHs among 121 elderly patients.

METHODS

In a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database across 15 US academic centers, the authors identified patients aged ≥ 65 years who underwent MMA embolization for the treatment of NASHs between November 2017 and February 2020. Patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical and radiographic factors, treatment factors, and clinical outcomes were abstracted. Subgroup analysis was performed comparing elderly (age 65–79 years) and advanced elderly (age > 80 years) patients.

RESULTS

MMA embolization was successfully performed in 98% of NASHs (in 148 of 151 cases) in 121 patients. Seventy elderly patients underwent 87 embolization procedures, and 51 advanced elderly patients underwent 64 embolization procedures. Elderly and advanced elderly patients had similar rates of embolization for upfront (46% vs 61%), recurrent (39% vs 33%), and prophylactic (i.e., with concomitant surgical intervention; 15% vs 6%) NASH treatment. Transfemoral access was used in most patients, and the procedure time was approximately 1 hour in both groups. Particle embolization with supplemental coils was most common, used in 51% (44/87) and 44% (28/64) of attempts for the elderly and advanced elderly groups, respectively. NASH thickness decreased significantly from initial thickness to 6 weeks, with additional decrease in thickness observed in both groups at 90 days. At longest follow-up, the treated NASHs had stabilized or improved in 91% and 98% of the elderly and advanced elderly groups, respectively, with > 50% improvement seen in > 60% of patients for each group. Surgical rescue was necessary in 4.6% and 7.8% of cases, and the overall mortality was 8.6% and 3.9% for elderly and advanced elderly patients, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

MMA embolization can be used safely and effectively as an alternative or adjunctive minimally invasive treatment for NASHs in elderly and advanced elderly patients.

Free access

nlm-article

Cover Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics

Prognostic significance of age within the adolescent and young adult acute ischemic stroke population after mechanical thrombectomy: insights from STAR

Victor M. Lu, Evan M. Luther, Michael A. Silva, Turki Elarjani, Ahmed Abdelsalam, Ilko Maier, Sami Al Kasab, Pascal M. Jabbour, Joon-Tae Kim, Stacey Q. Wolfe, Ansaar T. Rai, Marios-Nikos Psychogios, Edgar A. Samaniego, Adam S. Arthur, Shinichi Yoshimura, Jonathan A. Grossberg, Ali Alawieh, Isabel Fragata, Adam Polifka, Justin Mascitelli, Joshua Osbun, Min S. Park, Michael R. Levitt, Travis Dumont, Hugo Cuellar, Richard W. Williamson Jr., Daniele G. Romano, Roberto Crosa, Benjamin Gory, Maxim Mokin, Mark Moss, Kaustubh Limaye, Peter Kan, Dileep R. Yavagal, Alejandro M. Spiotta, and Robert M. Starke

OBJECTIVE

Although younger adults have been shown to have better functional outcomes after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS), the significance of this relationship in the adolescent and young adult (AYA) population is not well defined given its undefined rarity. Correspondingly, the goal of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of age in this specific demographic following MT for large-vessel occlusions.

METHODS

A prospectively maintained international multi-institutional database, STAR (Stroke Thrombectomy and Aneurysm Registry), was reviewed for all patients aged 12–18 (adolescent) and 19–25 (young adult) years. Parameters were compared using chi-square and t-test analyses, and associations were interrogated using regression analyses.

RESULTS

Of 7192 patients in the registry, 41 (0.6%) satisfied all criteria, with a mean age of 19.7 ± 3.3 years. The majority were male (59%) and young adults (61%) versus adolescents (39%). The median prestroke modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was 0 (range 0–2). Strokes were most common in the anterior circulation (88%), with the middle cerebral artery being the most common vessel (59%). The mean onset-to–groin puncture and groin puncture–to-reperfusion times were 327 ± 229 and 52 ± 42 minutes, respectively. The mean number of passes was 2.2 ± 1.2, with 61% of the cohort achieving successful reperfusion. There were only 3 (7%) cases of reocclusion. The median mRS score at 90 days was 2 (range 0–6). Between the adolescent and young adult subgroups, the median mRS score at last follow-up was statistically lower in the adolescent subgroup (1 vs 2, p = 0.03), and older age was significantly associated with a higher mRS at 90 days (coefficient 0.33, p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Although rare, MT for AIS in the AYA demographic is both safe and effective. Even within this relatively young demographic, age remains significantly associated with improved functional outcomes. The implication of age-dependent stroke outcomes after MT within the AYA demographic needs greater validation to develop effective age-specific protocols for long-term care across both pediatric and adult centers.

Free access

nlm-article

Cover Neurosurgical Focus

Abstracts of the 2017 AANS/CNS Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves Las Vegas, Nevada • March 8–11, 2017

Free access

nlm-article

Cover Journal of Neurosurgery

Oral Presentations 2015 AANS Annual Scientific Meeting Washington, DC • May 2–6, 2015

Published online August 1, 2015; DOI: 10.3171/2015.8.JNS.AANS2015abstracts