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Kunal P. Raygor, Khoi D. Than, Dean Chou, and Praveen V. Mummaneni

OBJECT

Spinal tumor resection has historically been performed via open approaches, although minimally invasive approaches have recently been found to be effective in small cohort series. The authors compare surgical characteristics and clinical outcomes of surgery in patients undergoing mini-open and open approaches for intradural-extramedullary tumor resection.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed 65 consecutive intradural-extramedullary tumor resections performed at their institution from 2007 to 2014. Patients with cervical tumors or pathology demonstrating neurofibroma were excluded (n = 14). The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test and Pearson chi-square test were used to compare continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, with significance set at p < 0.05.

RESULTS

Fifty-one thoracolumbar intradural-extramedullary tumor resections were included; 25 were performed via the minimally invasive transspinous approach. There were no statistically significant differences in age, sex, body mass index, preoperative American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) score, preoperative symptom duration, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status class, tumor size, or tumor location. There was no statistically significant difference between groups with respect to the duration of the operation or extent of resection, but the mean estimated blood loss was significantly lower in the minimally invasive surgery (MIS) cohort (142 vs 320 ml, p < 0.05). In each group, the 2 most common tumor pathologies were schwannoma and meningioma. There were no statistically significant differences in length of hospitalization, ASIA score improvement, complication rate, or recurrence rate. The mean duration of follow-up was 2 years for the MIS group and 1.6 years for the open surgery group.

CONCLUSIONS

This is one of the largest comparisons of minimally invasive and open approaches to the resection of thoracolumbar intradural-extramedullary tumors. With well-matched cohorts, the minimally invasive transspinous approach appears to be as safe and effective as the open technique, with the advantage of significantly reduced intraoperative blood loss.

Open access

nlm-article

Daniel M. S. Raper, Kunal P. Raygor, Caleb Rutledge, Todd B. Dubnicoff, and Adib A. Abla

Posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in pregnant patients can present unique considerations for surgical treatment, including positioning to minimize pressure on the fetus, minimization of radiation exposure, and ethical considerations regarding emergency surgery. This video outlines surgical treatment of a ruptured tonsillar/vermian AVM performed in a staged fashion after emergent suboccipital craniotomy with posterior fossa decompression in the setting of a life-threatening infratentorial hemorrhage. Later, bilateral cerebellomedullary fissure dissection, exposure and dissection of the tela choroidea and inferior medullary velum, and disconnection of arterial feeders from the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) allowed resection of this AVM occupying the roof of the fourth ventricle.

This study was approved by the UCSF Human Research Protection Program IRB no. 18-26938.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/rTYUGanopUE

Free access

nlm-article

Kunal P. Raygor, Anthony T. Lee, Noah Nichols, Doris D. Wang, Mariann M. Ward, Nicholas M. Barbaro, and Edward F. Chang

OBJECTIVE

Common surgical treatments for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) include microvascular decompression (MVD) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The use of MVD in elderly patients has been described but has yet to be prospectively compared to SRS, which is well-tolerated and noninvasive. The authors aimed to directly compare long-term pain control and adverse event rates for first-time surgical treatments for idiopathic TN in the elderly.

METHODS

A prospectively collected database was reviewed for TN patients who had undergone treatment between 1997 and 2017 at a single institution. Standardized collection of preoperative demographics, surgical procedure, and postoperative outcomes was performed. Data analysis was limited to patients over the age of 65 years who had undergone a first-time procedure for the treatment of idiopathic TN with at least 1 year of follow-up.

RESULTS

One hundred ninety-three patients meeting the study inclusion criteria underwent surgical procedures for TN during the study period (54 MVD, 24 MVD+Rhiz, 115 SRS). In patients in whom an artery was not compressing the trigeminal nerve during MVD, a partial sensory rhizotomy (MVD+Rhiz) was performed. Patients in the SRS cohort were older than those in the MVD and MVD+Rhiz cohorts (mean ± SD, 79.2 ± 7.8 vs 72.9 ± 5.7 and 70.9 ± 4.8 years, respectively; p < 0.0001) and had a higher mean Charlson Comorbidity Index (3.8 ± 1.1 vs 3.0 ± 0.9 and 2.9 ± 1.0, respectively; p < 0.0001). Immediate or short-term postoperative pain-free rates (Barrow Neurological Institute [BNI] pain intensity score I) were 98.1% for MVD, 95.8% for MVD+Rhiz, and 78.3% for SRS (p = 0.0008). At the last follow-up, 72.2% of MVD patients had a favorable outcome (BNI score I–IIIa) compared to 54.2% and 49.6% of MVD+Rhiz and SRS patients, respectively (p = 0.02). In total, 0 (0%) SRS, 5 (9.3%) MVD, and 1 (4.2%) MVD+Rhiz patients developed any adverse event. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis demonstrated that procedure type (p = 0.001) and postprocedure sensory change (p = 0.003) were statistically significantly associated with pain control.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study cohort, patients who had undergone MVD had a statistically significantly longer duration of pain freedom than those who had undergone MVD+Rhiz or SRS as their first procedure. Fewer adverse events were seen after SRS, though the MVD-associated complication rate was comparable to published rates in younger patients. Overall, the results suggest that both MVD and SRS are effective options for the elderly, despite their advanced age. Treatment choice can be tailored to a patient’s unique condition and wishes.

Restricted access

nlm-article

Visish M. Srinivasan, Phiroz E. Tarapore, Stefan W. Koester, Joshua S. Catapano, Caleb Rutledge, Kunal P. Raygor, and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

Rare arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the optic apparatus account for < 1% of all AVMs. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature for cases of optic apparatus AVMs and present 4 cases from their institution. The literature is summarized to describe preoperative characteristics, surgical technique, and treatment outcomes for these lesions.

METHODS

A comprehensive search of the English-language literature was performed in accordance with established Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to identify all published cases of AVM in the optic apparatus in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases. The authors also searched their prospective institutional database of vascular malformations for such cases. Data regarding the clinical and radiological presentation, visual acuity, visual fields, extent of resection, and postoperative outcomes were gathered.

RESULTS

Nine patients in the literature and 4 patients in the authors’ single-surgeon series who fit the inclusion criteria were identified. The median age at presentation was 29 years (range 8–39 years). Among these patients, 11 presented with visual disturbance, 9 with headache, and 1 with multiple prior subarachnoid hemorrhages; the AVM in 1 case was found incidentally. Four patients described prior symptoms of headache or visual disturbance consistent with sentinel events. Visual acuity was decreased from baseline in 10 patients, and 11 patients had visual field defects on formal visual field testing. The most common visual field defect was temporal hemianopia, found in one or both eyes in 7 patients. The optic chiasm was affected in 10 patients, the hypothalamus in 2 patients, the optic nerve (unilaterally) in 8 patients, and the optic tract in 2 patients. Six patients underwent gross-total resection; 6 patients underwent subtotal resection; and 1 patient underwent craniotomy, but no resection was attempted. Postoperatively, 9 of the patients had improved visual function, 1 had no change, and 3 had worse visual acuity. Eight patients demonstrated improved visual fields, 1 had no change, and 4 had narrowed fields.

CONCLUSIONS

AVMs of the optic apparatus are rare lesions. Although they reside in a highly eloquent region, surgical outcomes are generally good; the majority of patients will see improvement in their visual function postoperatively. Microsurgical technique is critical to the successful removal of these lesions, and preservation of function sometimes requires subtotal resection of the lesion.

Open access

nlm-article

Ramin A. Morshed, Alexander F. Haddad, Kunal P. Raygor, Mary Jue Xu, Charles J. Limb, and Philip V. Theodosopoulos

Intravestibular schwannomas are rare tumors within the intralabyrinthine region and involve different management considerations compared to more common vestibular schwannomas. In this report, the authors review a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with hearing loss and vestibular symptoms and was found to have a left intravestibular schwannoma. Given her debilitating vestibular symptoms, she underwent microsurgical resection. In this video, the authors review the relevant anatomy, surgical technique, and management considerations in these patients.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.7.FOCVID2187

Free access

nlm-article

Kunal P. Raygor, Taemin Oh, Joan Y. Hwang, Ryan R. L. Phelps, Kristen Ghoussaini, Patrick Wong, Rebecca Silvers, Lauren R. Ostling, and Peter P. Sun

OBJECTIVE

Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt infections are common complications after shunt operations. Despite the use of intravenous antibiotics, the incidence of infections remains high. Though antibiotic-impregnated catheters (AICs) are commonly used, another method of infection prophylaxis is the use of intraventricular (IVT) antibiotics. The authors describe their single-institution experience with a standard shunt protocol utilizing prophylactic IVT and topical vancomycin administration and report the incidence of pediatric shunt infections.

METHODS

Three hundred two patients undergoing VP shunt procedures with IVT and topical vancomycin between 2006 and 2016 were included. Patients were excluded if their age at surgery was greater than 18 years. Shunt operations were performed at a single institution following a standard shunt protocol implementing IVT and topical vancomycin. No AICs were used. Clinical data were retrospectively collected from the electronic health records.

RESULTS

Over the 11-year study period, 593 VP shunt operations were performed with IVT and topical vancomycin, and a total of 19 infections occurred (incidence 3.2% per procedure). The majority of infections (n = 10, 52.6%) were caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. The median time to shunt infection was 3.7 weeks. On multivariate analysis, the presence of a CSF leak (OR 31.5 [95% CI 8.8–112.6]) and age less than 6 months (OR 3.6 [95% CI 1.2–10.7]) were statistically significantly associated with the development of a shunt infection. A post hoc analysis comparing infection rates after procedures that adhered to the shunt protocol and those that did not administer IVT and topical vancomycin, plus historical controls, revealed a difference in infection rates (3.2% vs 6.9%, p = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS

The use of a standardized shunt operation technique that includes IVT and topical vancomycin is associated with a total shunt infection incidence of 3.2% per procedure, which compares favorably with the reported rates of shunt infection in the literature. The majority of infections occurred within 2 months of surgery and the most common causative organism was S. epidermidis. Young age (< 6 months) at the time of surgery and the presence of a postoperative CSF leak were statistically significantly associated with postoperative shunt infection on multivariate analysis. The results are hypothesis generating, and the authors propose that IVT and topical administration of vancomycin as part of a standardized shunt operation protocol may be an appropriate option for preventing pediatric shunt infections.

Free access

nlm-article

Ethan A. Winkler, John K. Yue, Hansen Deng, Kunal P. Raygor, Ryan R. L. Phelps, Caleb Rutledge, Alex Y. Lu, Roberto Rodriguez Rubio, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, and Adib A. Abla

OBJECTIVE

Cerebral bypass procedures are microsurgical techniques to augment or restore cerebral blood flow when treating a number of brain vascular diseases including moyamoya disease, occlusive vascular disease, and cerebral aneurysms. With advances in endovascular therapy and evolving evidence-based guidelines, it has been suggested that cerebral bypass procedures are in a state of decline. Here, the authors characterize the national trends in cerebral bypass surgery in the United States from 2002 to 2014.

METHODS

Using the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample, the authors extracted for analysis the data on all adult patients who had undergone cerebral bypass as indicated by ICD-9-CM procedure code 34.28. Indications for bypass procedures, patient demographics, healthcare costs, and regional variations are described. Results were stratified by indication for cerebral bypass including moyamoya disease, occlusive vascular disease, and cerebral aneurysms. Predictors of inpatient complications and death were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS

From 2002 to 2014, there was an increase in the annual number of cerebral bypass surgeries performed in the United States. This increase reflected a growth in the number of cerebral bypass procedures performed for adult moyamoya disease, whereas cases performed for occlusive vascular disease or cerebral aneurysms declined. Inpatient complication rates for cerebral bypass performed for moyamoya disease, vascular occlusive disease, and cerebral aneurysm were 13.2%, 25.1%, and 56.3%, respectively. Rates of iatrogenic stroke ranged from 3.8% to 20.4%, and mortality rates were 0.3%, 1.4%, and 7.8% for moyamoya disease, occlusive vascular disease, and cerebral aneurysms, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that cerebral bypass for vascular occlusive disease or cerebral aneurysm is a statistically significant predictor of inpatient complications and death. Mean healthcare costs of cerebral bypass remained unchanged from 2002 to 20014 and varied with treatment indication: moyamoya disease $38,406 ± $483, vascular occlusive disease $46,618 ± $774, and aneurysm $111,753 ± $2381.

CONCLUSIONS

The number of cerebral bypass surgeries performed for adult revascularization has increased in the United States from 2002 to 2014. Rising rates of surgical bypass reflect a greater proportion of surgeries performed for moyamoya disease, whereas bypasses performed for vascular occlusive disease and aneurysms are decreasing. Despite evolving indications, cerebral bypass remains an important surgical tool in the modern endovascular era and may be increasing in use. Stagnant complication rates highlight the need for continued interest in advancing available bypass techniques or technologies to improve patient outcomes.

Restricted access

nlm-article

Joshua S. Catapano, Caleb Rutledge, Kavelin Rumalla, Kunal P. Raygor, Visish M. Srinivasan, Stefan W. Koester, Anna R. Kimata, Kevin L. Ma, Mohamed A. Labib, Robert F. Spetzler, and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

The brainstem cavernous malformation (BSCM) grading system predicts neurological outcomes associated with microsurgical resection and assists neurosurgeons in selecting patients for treatment. The predictive accuracy of the BSCM grading system should be validated in a large cohort from high-volume centers to generalize its use.

METHODS

An external validation cohort comprised patients with a BSCM resected by the senior author (M.T.L.) since the publication of the BSCM grading system and those resected by another neurosurgeon (R.F.S.) over a 16-year period. Size, crossing the axial midpoint, the presence of a developmental venous anomaly, patient age, and timing of last hemorrhage were used to assign BSCM grades from 0 to VII. Poor neurological outcomes were recorded as modified Rankin Scale scores > 2 at last follow-up examination.

RESULTS

A total of 277 patients were included in the study. The average BSCM grade was 3.9, and the majority of BSCMs (181 patients, 65%) were intermediate grade (grades III–V). Outcomes were predicted by BSCM grade, with good outcomes observed in 47 of 54 patients (87%) with low-grade BSCMs, in 135 of 181 patients (75%) with intermediate-grade BSCMs, and in 21 of 42 patients (50%) with high-grade BSCMs. Conversely, proportions of patients with neurological deterioration increased with increasing BSCM grade, with worsening observed in 2 of 54 patients (4%) with low-grade BSCMs, in 29 of 181 patients (16%) with intermediate-grade BSCMs, and in 17 of 42 patients (40%) with high-grade BSCMs. In the chi-square analysis, high-grade BSCMs were associated with increased odds of neurological worsening compared to low- and intermediate-grade BSCMs (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.4–10.4; p < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated acceptable discrimination for predicting unfavorable functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score > 2) with an area under the curve of 0.74 (95% CI 0.68–0.80; p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

This study validates the BSCM grading system in a large cohort of patients from two high-volume surgeons. BSCM grade predicted neurological outcomes with accuracy comparable to that of other grading systems in widespread use. The BSCM grading system establishes categories of low-, intermediate-, and high-grade BSCMs and a boundary or cutoff for surgery at BSCM grade V. BSCM grading guides the analysis of a particular patient’s condition, but treatment recommendations must be individualized, and neurosurgeons must calibrate BSCM grading to their own outcome results, unique abilities, and practices.