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Donato Pacione, Omar Tanweer, Phillip Berman, and David H. Harter

, 2014 8 Waran V , Narayanan V , Karuppiah R , Pancharatnam D , Chandran H , Raman R , : Injecting realism in surgical training-initial simulation experience with custom 3D models . J Surg Educ 71 : 193 – 197 , 2014 9 Wurm G , Lehner M , Tomancok B , Kleiser R , Nussbaumer K : Cerebrovascular biomodeling for aneurysm surgery: simulation-based training by means of rapid prototyping technologies . Surg Innov 18 : 294 – 306 , 2011 10 Yang JC , Ma XY

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Men for all Seasons

An Inquiry into Principles, Practices, and Prejudices Governing Training of Neurosurgeons

W. Eugene Stern

of the resident's chores are undertaken for the convenience of the teaching staff, or others, rather than for his or his patients' benefit. These non-professional duties should be assumed by the many willing hands in the paramedical field—not by our residents. Fourth, as an outgrowth of having mentioned deficiencies in teaching programs, the thought might be worth pursuing that, whereas not every program need offer all facets of technical surgical training, every program should certainly

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Donlin M. Long

extirpation of the gasserian ganglion for trigeminal neuralgia still received a great deal of attention. This amazing production can still be read with profit today. Walter Dandy and Neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins Walter Dandy began his postgraduate education at Johns Hopkins in 1912, the year that Harvey Cushing left for Boston. Dandy completed his surgical training, and by 1919 was firmly established as the Johns Hopkins neurosurgeon. Over the subsequent 25 years of his career, he became the most

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Robert H. Wilkins and David C. Sabiston Jr.

completing his surgical training at the Johns Hopkins Hospital where he had been a favorite resident of Walter Dandy. 8, 10 Dr. Woodhall was given the charge of forming a Division of Neurosurgery, but his work was interrupted when he volunteered for military service in 1943. 6 Later in 1943, Guy L. Odom, who had received his training in neurosurgery under Wilder Penfield and William Cone at the Montreal Neurological Institute, was recruited to the Duke faculty by Dr. Hart. 9 Dr. Woodhall returned to

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Bruce L. Tai, Deborah Rooney, Francesca Stephenson, Peng-Siang Liao, Oren Sagher, Albert J. Shih, and Luis E. Savastano

20% of cases. 7 , 10 The high volume of procedures performed every year increases the risk profile of EVD placement, increasing the need for an effective surgical training tool and the need to standardize the evaluation of neurosurgeons who perform this procedure. 1 EVD placement is generally performed in emergency situations at unpredictable times, and residents must become proficient early in their training. 3 A study by Huyette et al. 11 measured the accuracy of freehand catheter placement

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Ladina Greuter, Adriana De Rosa, Philippe Cattin, Davide Marco Croci, Jehuda Soleman, and Raphael Guzman

characteristics, and therefore are not always suitable as teaching cases. Additionally, with the rising costs of operating theater time and the regulations of residents’ working hours, hands-on practice and surgical experience are becoming less frequent and residents often lack a sufficient case load. 2 , 3 Hence, novel tools are needed to optimize resident teaching and surgical training. Virtual-reality (VR) platforms offer the opportunity to either train a specific surgical skill or to facilitate the

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Jasmine A. Thum, Diana Chang, Nalini Tata, and Linda M. Liau

recognized and rewarded to improve women’s mentorship and advancement in neurosurgery. This is a “minority tax” that can only be alleviated as more women advance in the field. Family Planning Significantly different challenges face women trying to balance pregnancy and motherhood with surgical training. Compared to men, who primarily reported stress-related challenges with family planning, women have additional biological and sometimes medical challenges they must contend with before, during, and after

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Birra Taha, Praneeth Sadda, Graham Winston, Eseosa Odigie, Cristina Londono, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Susan C. Pannullo, and Caitlin Hoffman

that, of current neurological surgery residents, only 18% (n = 1479) are women, lower than that of otolaryngology (36%), plastic surgery (41%), vascular surgery (34%), and thoracic surgery (27%). 6 Regarding faculty composition, while the number of female full professors in surgical departments has increased steadily over the past 20 years, it has increased at a significantly slower rate than female enrollment in surgical training programs. 7 While the gender representation discrepancy in

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Kellen Gandy, Heidi Castillo, Brandon G. Rocque, Viachaslau Bradko, William Whitehead, and Jonathan Castillo

neurosurgeons evaluate results of surgical training & medical care in East, Central, & South Africa (7 years). Host/coordinating program(s): Neurosurgery Education and Development (NED) Foundation, the Foundation for International Education in Neurological Surgery (FIENS). Host hospitals: Kenyatta Hospital, Nyeri Provincial Hospital, Aga Khan Hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, Coast Provincial General Hospital, Kijabe Mission Hospital, Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute, Bethel Teaching General Hospital

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Francis J. Jareczek, Marshall T. Holland, Matthew A. Howard III, Timothy Walch, and Taylor J. Abel

complications of their original surgical technique—hemorrhage and epilepsy, in particular—Freeman developed a less invasive approach in the transorbital technique, which was thought to reduce the incidence of these complications while maintaining therapeutic efficacy. 24 Watts, the more conservative of the two, was opposed to neurosurgical interventions being performed by individuals without any formal surgical training and left the partnership in the mid-1950s. Having established a methodology that was