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Paola Frati, Alessandro Frati, Maurizio Salvati, Silvia Marinozzi, Riccardo Frati, Luciana Rita Angeletti, Manolo Piccirilli, Eugenio Gaudio, and Roberto Delfini

, often is not possible during this procedure. In what way can an autopsy help surgical training? Italian law makes a distinction between judicial autopsies and diagnostic autopsies. 5 , 9 , 17 , 36 , 38 In the case of a judicial autopsy, which is used to obtain evidence of a crime, students or residents seldom can participate and cannot use these opportunities to train for surgery; such participation could compromise the confidentiality of the criminal investigation itself as well as the

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Marie-Therese Forster, Marion Behrens, Anna Cecilia Lawson McLean, Dorothea Isabella Nistor-Gallo, Miriam Weiss, and Stefanie Maurer

times higher than in the general population, resulting in a rate of 23% of assisted reproductive technology use. 21 A recent disheartening study, as it was correctly named by Dossani et al., 17 affirmed that 29.5% of female surgeons would advise female medical students not to choose a career in surgery because of the incompatibility between the profession with family life. 22 Furthermore, female surgeons more frequently consider quitting their surgical training than their male colleagues. 13 , 22

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Swetha J. Sundar, Andrew T. Healy, Varun R. Kshettry, Thomas E. Mroz, Richard Schlenk, and Edward C. Benzel

Research Laboratories, Inc.) are used. 9 , 14 A number of recent studies have attempted to compare the benefits of various laboratory-based techniques, although most do not demonstrate significant benefit. 7 , 9 , 14 To date, a definitive, evidence-based, laboratory training module has not been delineated. Simulation-based methods are being increasingly adopted in surgical training. 3 , 4 , 6 , 12 , 13 However, strategies used in general surgery may not be as applicable in spine surgery, where

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M. Sean Grady, H. Hunt Batjer, and Ralph G. Dacey

replace actual surgical training in the near future. Special Characteristics of Neurosurgical Practice Patterns of neurosurgical practice are somewhat different from other disciplines. There are ~ 3300 actively practicing board-certified neurosurgeons in > 6000 hospitals in the US, serving a population of > 300 million individuals. Neurosurgical emergencies frequently occur at night and on weekends and in a highly unpredictable fashion. Neurosurgical diseases and injuries tend to develop rapidly

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Hani J. Marcus, Philip Pratt, Archie Hughes-Hallett, Thomas P. Cundy, Adam P. Marcus, Guang-Zhong Yang, Ara Darzi, and Dipankar Nandi

-demand inverse realism, and always-on solid overlay versus always-on mesh overlay. Results Baseline Demographic Data The demographics of the participants are summarized in Table 1 . Of the 50 participants recruited, 35 were medical students and 15 were junior doctors; none had yet embarked on formal surgical training. There was no significant difference in demographics or experience between the groups. All participants enrolled completed the study, and no losses occurred after randomization

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Daniel R. Cleary, Dominic A. Siler, Nathaniel Whitney, and Nathan R. Selden

residents’ confidence in and proficiency with basic technical skills, as well as knowledge retention. 3 , 9 , 23 Neurosurgery program directors embrace simulation as a supplement to traditional educational approaches for the improvement of clinical outcomes. 10 Simulation may enhance practice-based skills performance improvement. 1 , 4 , 6 , 13 , 16 , 20 , 26 While simulation appears to be a valuable complement to traditional surgical training, more studies are needed to define what simulation

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Ivan Cheng, Martin N. Stienen, Zachary A. Medress, Kunal Varshneya, Allen L. Ho, John K. Ratliff, and Anand Veeravagu

the quality of training. 21 The SRS survey showed that expert opinions are split regarding whether a dual-attending strategy negatively affects the surgical training of residents and/or fellows. 15 It is clear that hands-on surgical experience should be preserved as much as possible, 28 but the few carefully selected dual-attending cases (7.5% of both surgeons’ procedures with similar DRG codes) are unlikely to have a strong effect on resident’s total case logs and appear not to be optimally

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Justin Chan, Dhiraj J. Pangal, Tyler Cardinal, Guillaume Kugener, Yichao Zhu, Arman Roshannai, Nicholas Markarian, Aditya Sinha, Anima Anandkumar, Andrew Hung, Gabriel Zada, and Daniel A. Donoho

representation of force along the plane of the tumor), both of which accurately distinguished surgical training levels. 40 Four studies used machine learning and/or AI algorithms based on VR outputs to predict a participant's training level group: NeuroVR (3 studies), Sim-Ortho (1 study). 13 , 24 , 35 , 41 Studies used a variety of machine learning architectures, including K-nearest neighbor, naïve Bayes, support vector machines (SVMs), discriminant analysis, and conventional neural networks. Distance

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Linda W. Xu, Amy Li, Christian Swinney, Maya Babu, Anand Veeravagu, Stacey Quintero Wolfe, Brian V. Nahed, and John K. Ratliff

86-A : 1909 – 1916 , 2004 10.2106/00004623-200409000-00008 15342752 14 Khan OA , Iyengar S , Pontefract DE , Rogers V , Ohri SK , Livesey SA : Impact of surgeon-specific data reporting on surgical training . Ann R Coll Surg Engl 89 : 796 – 798 , 2007 17999823 10.1308/003588407X232080 15 Kreder HJ , Deyo RA , Koepsell T , Swiontkowski MF , Kreuter W : Relationship between the volume of total hip replacements performed by providers and the rates of