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Open access

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Qiang Jian, Zhenlei Liu, Wanru Duan, Jian Guan, Fengzeng Jian, and Zan Chen

BACKGROUND

Treatment of severe rigid 360° fused cervical kyphosis (CK) is challenging and often requires a combined approach for ankylosis release, establishment of sagittal balance, and fixation with fusion.

OBSERVATIONS

Four patients with iatrogenic 360° fused severe rigid CK (Cobb angle ≥40°) were enrolled for this retrospective analysis. All patients in the case series were female, with an average age of 27 years. All patients previously underwent posterior laminectomy/laminoplasty and cervical tumor resection when they were children (13–17 years). They underwent correction surgery with a 540° posterior-anterior-posterior approach. Preoperative and final follow-up radiography and computed tomography (CT) were used to evaluate kyphosis correction, internal fixation implants, and bone fusion. The preoperative and final follow-up average C2–7 Cobb angles were −32.4° ± 12.0° and 5.3° ± 7.1°, respectively. Preoperative and final follow-up CK angles averaged −47.2° ± 7.4° and −0.9° ± 16.1°, respectively. The mean correction angle was 46.3° ± 9.6°. At final follow-up, CT showed stable fixation and solid bone fusion.

LESSONS

The rare iatrogenic severe kyphosis with 360° ankylosis requires a combined approach. The 540° posterior-anterior-posterior approach can completely release the bony fusion, and the CK can be corrected using an anterior plate. This technique can achieve good results and is an effective strategy.

Open access

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Jorge A. Roa, Sarah White, Ernest J. Barthélemy, Arthur Jenkins III, and Konstantinos Margetis

BACKGROUND

Coccydynia refers to debilitating pain in the coccygeal region of the spine. Treatment strategies range from conservative measures (e.g., ergonomic adaptations, physical therapy, nerve block injections) to partial or complete removal of the coccyx (coccygectomy). Because the surgical intervention is situated in a high-pressure location close to the anus, a possible complication is the formation of sacral pressure ulcers and infection at the incision site.

OBSERVATIONS

In this case report, the authors presented a minimally invasive, fully endoscopic approach to safely perform complete coccygectomy for treatment of refractory posttraumatic coccydynia.

LESSONS

Although this is a single case report, the authors hope that this novel endoscopic approach may achieve improved wound healing, reduced infection rates, and lower risk of penetration injury to retroperitoneal organs in patients requiring coccygectomy.

Open access

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Anna L. Slingerland, Lissa C. Baird, and R. Michael Scott

BACKGROUND

During initial exposure and removal of craniopharyngioma in pediatric patients with severe visual field deficits, the authors have encountered severe deformation of the optic apparatus by taut anterior cerebral arteries as seen during both frontal craniotomy and transsphenoidal exposures.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report two pediatric patients with craniopharyngioma whose severe preoperative visual deficits were associated not only with large suprasellar masses but also with severe optic nerve and chiasm compression by taut anterior cerebral arteries. In each patient, the optic nerves were partially cleft by these vessels’ indenting them.

LESSONS

The role of a taut anterior cerebral artery complex in compression of the optic apparatus in patients with suprasellar tumors has been reported previously, but the intraoperative images in these two cases dramatically reveal this phenomenon.

Open access

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Yoshio Araki, Kinya Yokoyama, Kenji Uda, Fumiaki Kanamori, Michihiro Kurimoto, Yoshiki Shiba, Takashi Mamiya, Kai Takayanagi, Kazuki Ishii, Masahiro Nishihori, Kazuhito Takeuchi, Kuniaki Tanahashi, Yuichi Nagata, Yusuke Nishimura, Sho Okamoto, Masaki Sumitomo, Takashi Izumi, and Ryuta Saito

BACKGROUND

Transient neurological deficits (TNDs) develop after cerebral revascularization in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD). The authors report a rare pediatric MMD case with extensive decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) and prolonged TNDs after combined revascularization.

OBSERVATIONS

A 9-year-old boy presented with transient left upper limb weakness, and MMD was diagnosed. A right-sided combined surgery was performed. Two years after the surgery, frequent but transient facial (right-sided) and upper limb weakness appeared. The left internal carotid artery terminal stenosis had progressed. Therefore, a left combined revascularization was performed. The patient’s motor aphasia and right upper limb weakness persisted for approximately 10 days after surgery. Magnetic resonance angiography showed that the direct bypass was patent, but extensive decreases in left CBF were observed using single photon emission tomography. With adequate fluid therapy and blood pressure control, the neurological symptoms eventually disappeared, and CBF improved.

LESSONS

The environment of cerebral hemodynamics is heterogeneous after cerebral revascularization for MMD, and the exact mechanism of CBF decreases was not identified. TNDs are significantly associated with the onset of stroke during the early postoperative period. Therefore, appropriate treatment is desired after determining complex cerebral hemodynamics using CBF studies.

Open access

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Albin A. John, Joey Grochmal, and Jason Felton

BACKGROUND

Posterior atlantoaxial dislocations (i.e., complete anterior odontoid dislocation) without C1 arch fractures are a rare hyperextension injury most often found in high-velocity trauma patients. Treatment options include either closed or open reduction and optional spinal fusion to address atlantoaxial instability due to ligamentous injury.

OBSERVATIONS

A 60-year-old male was struck while on his bicycle by a truck and sustained an odontoid dislocation without C1 arch fracture. Imaging findings additionally delineated a high suspicion for craniocervical instability. The patient had neurological issues due to both a head injury and ischemia secondary to an injured vertebral artery. He was stabilized and transferred to our facility for definitive neurosurgical care.

LESSONS

The patient underwent a successful transoral digital closed reduction and posterior occipital spinal fusion via a fiducial-based transcondylar, C1 lateral mass, C2 pedicle, and C3 lateral mass construct. This unique reduction technique has not been recorded in the literature before and avoided potential complications of overdistraction and the need for odontoidectomy. Furthermore, the use of bone fiducials for navigated screw fixation at the craniocervical junction is a novel technique and recommended particularly for placement of technically demanding transcondylar screws and C2 pedicle screws where pars anatomy is potentially unfavorable.

Restricted access

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Rohin Singh, Ryan M. Thorwarth, Bernard R. Bendok, Tanya J. Rath, Aditi A. Bhuskute, Sharon H. Gnagi, and Devyani Lal

OBJECTIVE

Improper embryological development of the clivus, a bony structure that comprises part of the skull base, can lead to a clival canal defect. Previously thought to be a benign condition, clival canals have been reported to be associated with meningitis and meningoceles. In this review, the authors sought to present an unpublished case of a patient with a clival canal defect associated with meningitis and to evaluate all other reported cases.

METHODS

In October 2020, a search of PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus was conducted to identify all cases of clival canals reported from January 1, 1980, through October 31, 2020.

RESULTS

Including the case presented herein, 13 cases of clival canals, 11 in children (84.6%) and 2 in adults (15.4%), have been identified. Of the pediatric patients, 5 (45.5%) had an associated meningocele, and 8 (72.7%) had meningitis. Nine of the 13 patients (69.2%) had defects that were treated surgically, 5 (38.5%) by a transnasal approach and 4 (30.8%) by a transoral approach. Two patients (15.4%) were treated with drainage and antibiotics, 1 patient (7.7%) was treated solely with antibiotics, and 1 patient (7.7%) was not treated. In the literature review, 8 reports of clival canals were found to be associated with meningitis, further contributing to the notion that the clival canal may be an overlooked source of recurrent infection. In several of these cases, surgical repair of the lesion was curative, thus preventing continued episodes of meningitis.

CONCLUSIONS

When a patient has recurrent meningitis with no clear cause, taking a closer look at clival anatomy is recommended. In addition, if a clival canal defect has been identified, surgical repair should be considered a safe and effective primary treatment option.

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Shunji Tsutsui, Ei Yamamoto, Takuhei Kozaki, Akimasa Murata, and Hiroshi Yamada

OBJECTIVE

Despite improvements in surgical techniques and instruments, high rates of rod fracture following a long spinal fusion in the treatment of adult spinal deformity (ASD) remain a concern. Thus, an improved understanding of rod fracture may be valuable for better surgical planning. The authors aimed to investigate mechanical stress on posterior rods in lumbopelvic fixation for the treatment of ASD.

METHODS

Synthetic lumbopelvic bone models were instrumented with intervertebral cages, pedicle screws, S2-alar-iliac screws, and rods. The construct was then placed in a testing device, and compressive loads were applied. Subsequently, the strain on the rods was measured using strain gauges on the dorsal aspect of each rod.

RESULTS

When the models were instrumented using titanium alloy rods at 30° lumbar lordosis and with lateral interbody fusion cages, posterior rod strain was highest at the lowest segment (L5–S1) and significantly higher than that at the upper segment (L2–3) (p = 0.002). Changing the rod contour from 30° to 50° caused a 36% increase in strain at L5–S1 (p = 0.009). Changing the rod material from titanium alloy to cobalt-chromium caused a 140% increase in strain at L2–3 (p = 0.009) and a 28% decrease in strain at L5–S1 (p = 0.016). The rod strain at L5–S1 using a flat bender for contouring was 23% less than that obtained using a French bender (p = 0.016).

CONCLUSIONS

In lumbopelvic fixation in which currently available surgical techniques for ASD are used, the posterior rod strain was highest at the lumbosacral junction, and depended on the contour and material of the rods.

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Jacob L. Goldberg, Ibrahim Hussain, Joseph A. Carnevale, Alexandra Giantini-Larsen, Ori Barzilai, and Mark H. Bilsky

OBJECTIVE

Paraspinal ganglioneuromas are rare tumors that arise from neural crest tissue and can cause morbidity via compression of adjacent organs and neurovascular structures. The authors investigated a case series of these tumors treated at their institution to determine clinical outcomes following resection.

METHODS

A retrospective review of a prospectively collected cohort of consecutive, pathology-confirmed, surgically treated paraspinal ganglioneuromas from 2001 to 2019 was performed at a tertiary cancer center.

RESULTS

Fifteen cases of paraspinal ganglioneuroma were identified: 47% were female and the median age at the time of surgery was 30 years (range 10–67 years). Resected tumors included 9 thoracic, 1 lumbar, and 5 sacral, with an average maximum tumor dimension of 6.8 cm (range 1–13.5 cm). Two patients had treated neuroblastomas that matured into ganglioneuromas. One patient had a secretory tumor causing systemic symptoms. Surgical approaches were anterior (n = 11), posterior (n = 2), or combined (n = 2). Seven (47%) and 5 (33%) patients underwent gross-total resection (GTR) or subtotal resection with minimal residual tumor, respectively. The complication rate was 20%, with no permanent neurological deficits or deaths. No patient had evidence of tumor recurrence or progression after a median follow-up of 68 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Surgical approaches and extent of resection for paraspinal ganglioneuromas must be heavily weighed against the advantages of aggressive debulking and decompression given the complication risk of these procedures. GTR can be curative, but even patients without complete tumor removal can show evidence of excellent long-term local control and clinical outcomes.

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Xiaopeng Guo, Ruopeng Zhang, Duoxing Zhang, Zihao Wang, Lu Gao, Yong Yao, Kan Deng, Xinjie Bao, Ming Feng, Zhiqin Xu, Yi Yang, Wei Lian, Renzhi Wang, Wenbin Ma, and Bing Xing

OBJECTIVE

Treatment outcomes following initial transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for acromegaly are erratic. Identifying outcome patterns can assist in informing patients about possible treatment outcomes and planning for individualized adjuvant treatments in advance. In this study, the authors aimed to investigate the immediate and long-term endocrine remission rates following initial TSS for acromegaly, identify clinical determinants of treatment outcomes, and explore outcome patterns during a long-term follow-up and the pattern-specific patient features.

METHODS

This prospective, single-center, longitudinal cohort study enrolled patients with acromegaly who underwent TSS in the period from 2015 to 2018 at the authors’ institution. Immediate remission, assessed on the 2nd postoperative morning, and long-term remission, assessed at least 18 months after TSS, were evaluated according to the strict 2010 consensus criteria (random growth hormone [GH] < 1 ng/ml or GH nadir < 0.4 ng/ml after oral glucose tolerance test, and age- and sex-normalized insulin-like growth factor 1). Univariate and bivariate regression analyses were used to identify determinants of remission.

RESULTS

A total of 659 patients with acromegaly (average age 42 years, 44% males) underwent TSS for pituitary adenomas (macroadenomas, 85%; invasive tumors, 35%) and were followed up during a median of 51 months. Immediate and long-term remission rates after initial TSS were 37% and 69%, respectively. Older age at diagnosis (OR 1.7), male sex (OR 1.6), smaller tumors (OR 2.0), noninvasive tumors (OR 4.8), and tumors positive for follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone (OR 1.5) were predictors of immediate surgical remission. In addition to the above predictors, lower preoperative GH (OR 2.4), absence of preoperative central hypothyroidism (OR 2.6), and endoscopic TSS (OR 10.6) were predictors of long-term remission. Regression analyses revealed that endoscopic TSS (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.524–5.291, p = 0.001), absence of cavernous sinus invasion (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.522–6.613, p < 0.001), older age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.006–1.048, p = 0.013), and male sex (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.224–3.247, p = 0.006) were independent determinants of long-term remission. Five outcome patterns were identified based on the changes in hormonal results during follow-up, including continuous remission (34%), refractory acromegaly (28%), delayed remission (21%), remission after adjuvant therapy (14%), and recurrence after initial remission (3%). The clinical characteristics of each subgroup were identified.

CONCLUSIONS

Cavernous sinus invasion, age at diagnosis, and sex are the best determinants of immediate and long-term remission after initial TSS for acromegaly. Endoscopic TSS predicts a higher long-term remission rate than that with microscopic TSS. The authors identified five outcome patterns in acromegaly and group-specific patient characteristics for clinical decision-making.

Restricted access

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Hendrik-Jan Mijderwijk, Daan Nieboer, Fatih Incekara, Kerstin Berger, Ewout W. Steyerberg, Martin J. van den Bent, Guido Reifenberger, Daniel Hänggi, Marion Smits, Christian Senft, Marion Rapp, Michael Sabel, Martin Voss, Marie-Therese Forster, and Marcel A. Kamp

OBJECTIVE

Prognostication of glioblastoma survival has become more refined due to the molecular reclassification of these tumors into isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild-type and IDH mutant. Since this molecular stratification, however, robust clinical prediction models relevant to the entire IDH wild-type glioblastoma patient population are lacking. This study aimed to provide an updated model that predicts individual survival prognosis in patients with IDH wild-type glioblastoma.

METHODS

Databases from Germany and the Netherlands provided data on 1036 newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients treated between 2012 and 2018. A clinical prediction model for all-cause mortality was developed with Cox proportional hazards regression. This model included recent glioblastoma-associated molecular markers in addition to well-known classic prognostic variables, which were updated and refined with additional categories. Model performance was evaluated according to calibration (using calibration plots and calibration slope) and discrimination (using a C-statistic) in a cross-validation procedure by country to assess external validity.

RESULTS

The German and Dutch patient cohorts consisted of 710 and 326 patients, respectively, of whom 511 (72%) and 308 (95%) had died. Three models were developed, each with increasing complexity. The final model considering age, sex, preoperative Karnofsky Performance Status, extent of resection, O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status, and adjuvant therapeutic regimen showed an optimism-corrected C-statistic of 0.73 (95% confidence interval 0.71–0.75). Cross-validation between the national cohorts yielded comparable results.

CONCLUSIONS

This prediction model reliably predicts individual survival prognosis in patients with newly diagnosed IDH wild-type glioblastoma, although additional validation, especially for long-term survival, may be desired. The nomogram and web application of this model may support shared decision-making if used properly.