Schematic image of the spine (L1–pelvis) instrumented with transforaminal (upper left), anterior (center left), and lateral (lower left) lumbar interbody fixation devices as a standalone cage (upper right) and with supplemental posterior fixation (lower right) at the L4–5 level. © Margaret Sten, published with permission. See the article by Kiapour et al. (pp 928–936).
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