Predictors of favorable quality of life outcome following kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty

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OBJECTIVE

In 2009, 2 randomized controlled trials demonstrated no improvement in pain following vertebral augmentation compared with sham surgery. However, a recent randomized trial demonstrated significant pain relief in patients following vertebroplasty compared to controls treated with conservative medical management. This study is a retrospective review of prospectively collected patient-reported quality of life (QOL) outcomes. The authors hypothesized that vertebral augmentation procedures offer a QOL benefit, but that this benefit would be diminished in patients with a history of depression and/or in patients undergoing vertebral augmentation at more than 1 level.

METHODS

Multivariable linear regression was used to identify predictors of postoperative pain assessed using the Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ), Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), and EQ-5D scores. Eleven candidate predictors were selected a priori: age, sex, smoking history, coronary artery disease, depression, diabetes, procedure location (thoracic, lumbar), BMI, prior spine surgery, procedure indication (metastases, osteoporosis/osteopenia, other), and number of levels (1, 2, 3, or more).

RESULTS

A total of 143 patients were included in the study. For each 10-year increase in age, postoperative PDQ scores decreased (improved) by 9.7 points (p < 0.001). Patients with osteoporosis/osteopenia had significantly higher (worse) postoperative PDQ scores (+17.97, p = 0.028) than patients with metastatic lesions. Male sex was associated with higher (worse) postoperative PHQ-9 scores (+2.48, p = 0.010). Compared to single-level augmentation, operations at 2 levels were associated with significantly higher PHQ-9 scores (+2.58, p = 0.017). Current smokers had significantly lower PHQ-9 scores (−1.98, p = 0.023) than never smokers. No predictors were associated with significantly different EQ-5D score.

CONCLUSIONS

Variables associated with worse postoperative PDQ scores included younger age and osteoporosis/osteopenia. Variables associated with decreased (better) postoperative PHQ-9 scores included female sex, single operative vertebral level, and positive smoking status (i.e., current smoker). These clinically relevant predictors may permit identification of patients who may benefit from vertebral augmentation.

ABBREVIATIONS MCID = minimum clinically important difference; PDQ = Pain Disability Questionnaire; PHQ-9 = Patient Health Questionnaire 9; QOL = quality of life; RCT = randomized controlled trial; VCF = vertebral compression fracture.
Article Information

Contributor Notes

Correspondence Jaes C. Jones: Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, OH. jaesjones@gmail.com.INCLUDE WHEN CITING Published online May 24, 2019; DOI: 10.3171/2019.3.SPINE18419.Disclosures Dr. Thompson reports receiving salary support paid to his institution from Novartis Pharmaceuticals for research outside this study. Dr. Mroz reports being a consultant for Stryker.

© AANS, except where prohibited by US copyright law.

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