A preliminary comparative clinical study of vertebroplasty with multineedle or single-needle interstitial implantation of 125I seeds in the treatment of osteolytic metastatic vertebral tumors

Clinical article

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Object

Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) combined with brachytherapy using the interstitial implantation of 125I seeds has previously yielded encouraging clinical results in the treatment of metastatic vertebral tumors. However, the bone cement injection volume is very small due to the osteolytic damage to the metastatic vertebrae, and the ideal spatial distribution of the 125I seeds is difficult to achieve. In the current study, the authors present a clinical method for puncture needle insertion to achieve a greater bone cement injection volume and a more ideal spatial distribution of the 125I seeds.

Methods

Twenty-nine patients with osteolytic metastatic vertebral tumors were divided into 2 groups and were treated with either PVP combined with multineedle interstitial implantation of 125I seeds, or PVP combined with single-needle interstitial implantation of 125I seeds. Clinical efficacy was evaluated according to a visual analog scale (VAS) of pain, the Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS), and the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST).

Results

Back pain was significantly alleviated in all patients after surgery. Compared with the preoperative scores, the VAS scores were significantly decreased in both groups at 1 week and 3 months postoperatively (p < 0.05), but there were no significant intergroup differences (p > 0.05). The postoperative quality of life was improved in both groups; the KPS scores increased significantly compared with the preoperative scores (p < 0.05), and the postoperative KPS scores were significantly different between the 2 groups (p < 0.05). No intergroup differences were observed in pain alleviation, but the bone cement injection volume was significantly greater in the multineedle group than in the single-needle group (p < 0.05). The clinical benefit rate and disease control rate at 3 months after the operation were both significantly better for the multineedle group (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

The outcomes of PVP combined with multineedle interstitial implantation of 125I seeds in patients with osteolytic metastatic vertebral tumors appeared to be better than the outcomes of PVP combined with single-needle interstitial implantation of 125I seeds. These better outcomes may be the result of the greater bone cement injection volume and the more ideal spatial distribution of the 125I seeds.

Abbreviations used in this paper:EBRT = external beam radiation therapy; KPS = Karnofsky Performance Scale; PMMA = polymethylmethacrylate; PVP = percutaneous vertebroplasty; RECIST = Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors; VAS = visual analog scale.

Abstract

Object

Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) combined with brachytherapy using the interstitial implantation of 125I seeds has previously yielded encouraging clinical results in the treatment of metastatic vertebral tumors. However, the bone cement injection volume is very small due to the osteolytic damage to the metastatic vertebrae, and the ideal spatial distribution of the 125I seeds is difficult to achieve. In the current study, the authors present a clinical method for puncture needle insertion to achieve a greater bone cement injection volume and a more ideal spatial distribution of the 125I seeds.

Methods

Twenty-nine patients with osteolytic metastatic vertebral tumors were divided into 2 groups and were treated with either PVP combined with multineedle interstitial implantation of 125I seeds, or PVP combined with single-needle interstitial implantation of 125I seeds. Clinical efficacy was evaluated according to a visual analog scale (VAS) of pain, the Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS), and the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST).

Results

Back pain was significantly alleviated in all patients after surgery. Compared with the preoperative scores, the VAS scores were significantly decreased in both groups at 1 week and 3 months postoperatively (p < 0.05), but there were no significant intergroup differences (p > 0.05). The postoperative quality of life was improved in both groups; the KPS scores increased significantly compared with the preoperative scores (p < 0.05), and the postoperative KPS scores were significantly different between the 2 groups (p < 0.05). No intergroup differences were observed in pain alleviation, but the bone cement injection volume was significantly greater in the multineedle group than in the single-needle group (p < 0.05). The clinical benefit rate and disease control rate at 3 months after the operation were both significantly better for the multineedle group (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

The outcomes of PVP combined with multineedle interstitial implantation of 125I seeds in patients with osteolytic metastatic vertebral tumors appeared to be better than the outcomes of PVP combined with single-needle interstitial implantation of 125I seeds. These better outcomes may be the result of the greater bone cement injection volume and the more ideal spatial distribution of the 125I seeds.

Spinal metastases are common complications of malignant tumors, and the most frequent metastatic sites are the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae.10,15 The tumors most likely to result in spinal metastasis include those of the breast, lung, and prostate.21 The incidence of spinal metastasis has gradually increased in recent years along with the increased incidence of each type of tumor, the improvements in diagnostic techniques, and the prolongation of life in patients with cancer.19 With the damage from metastasis aggravating the spine, the spinal cord may be affected (constricted, compressed), which could induce sensory and motor dysfunction or even paralysis in serious cases. Furthermore, osteolytic metastatic tumors can destroy the vertebral bone structure, impair spinal stability, or even induce pathological vertebral fractures, thus seriously affecting the quality of life of patients.3,23 The traditional surgical treatments for spinal metastasis have many disadvantages, such as major trauma, a high incidence of complications, and a long recovery time. Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) is an effective treatment for spinal metastases.12 125I is a synthetic low-energy radioisotope of iodine that emits γ-rays and x-rays, and this isotope has often been used for brachytherapy.22 Percutaneous vertebroplasty combined with the implantation of 125I seeds not only restores spinal stability but also has local antitumor effects.25 However, traditional PVP, in which 1 needle punctures the vertebral body at each pedicle, does not allow for ideal 125I seed distribution or a large bone cement injection volume, especially in osteolytic vertebrae. In this study, we used either multiple or single needles to implant the seeds and cement, and we assessed the differences between the implantation methods. To date, few comparative clinical studies concerning the implantation of 125I seeds have been performed. In Zibo Central Hospital from November 2010 to June 2012, 16 patients with osteolytic spinal metastases were treated with PVP combined with single-needle interstitial implantation of 125I seeds, and 13 patients with osteolytic spinal metastases were treated with PVP combined with multineedle interstitial implantation of 125I seeds, both with significant clinical efficacy. In this paper, we report the details of our preliminary study.

Methods

Patient Selection

Twenty-nine patients were included in this study (18 men and 11 women); the patients ranged in age from 28 to 70 years (mean 49.2 years). The indications for study inclusion were: having an estimated survival of more than 3 months according to orthopedic and oncology specialists; a lack of complete paralysis; having fewer than 3 damaged vertebrae; having no metastatic disease in other organ systems; being in poor health, resulting in ineligibility for open surgery; and the inability to tolerate long cycles of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. To observe the effects of PVP and brachytherapy, the patients who were strong enough for open surgery, chemotherapy, and conventional external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), and those who could not lie prone for more than 1 hour, were excluded from this study. The primary tumors included 13 cases of lung cancer, 6 cases of breast cancer, 3 cases of thyroid cancer, 2 cases each of gastric cancer, rectal cancer, and prostate cancer, and 1 case of kidney cancer. In total, 47 vertebrae were involved, including 31 thoracic vertebrae and 16 lumbar vertebrae. The vertebral metastases primarily manifested as osteolytic destruction, including obvious damage to the posterior margin of 11 vertebrae, combined destruction in the pedicles and transverse processes of 8 vertebrae, and 5 cases of paraspinal metastasis that formed paraspinal masses. One patient had incomplete paralysis prior to surgery.

All the patients were diagnosed via aspiration biopsy or had undergone surgical excision of their primary tumors, which were verified by pathological examination. Furthermore, all patients had significant low-back pain and corresponding imaging examination results. The 29 patients were randomly divided into 2 groups, in which 16 patients (26 vertebrae) underwent PVP combined with single-needle interstitial implantation of 125I seeds, and 13 patients (21 vertebrae) underwent PVP combined with multineedle interstitial implantation of 125I seeds. The patients and their families were well-informed of the details and signed informed consent forms prior to participating in the study. This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Zibo Central Hospital.

Instruments and Radioactive Source

Flat panel detector digital subtraction angiography (GE) was used for intraoperative image monitoring. The radioactive 125I seeds were purchased from Beijing Atom Hi-Tech Co., Ltd., at a size of 0.8 mm × 0.45 mm and an activity range of 0.5–0.9 mCi. The complete set of Model 201 vertebroplasty instruments was obtained from Shandong Guanlong Medical Supplies Co., Ltd. The polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement used in our study was Osteopal V (Heraeus Medical GmbH).

Three-Dimensional Treatment Planning System

The tumor target regions were outlined preoperatively with a treatment planning system (Nuclear Industry Corp., Beijing Kelinzhong Medical Technology Institute);1,13 spatial patterns of the seed distribution were created for each patient, and the minimum peripheral dose range was preliminarily defined as 90–140 Gy.

Operative Techniques

The surgery was performed in an interventional operating room under the guidance of a flat panel detector digital subtraction angiography instrument. A single experienced doctor administered the local anesthesia and the preoperative and intraoperative analgesic treatments while the patient was prone. The puncture approaches included the transpedicular and extrapedicular approaches.9 All patients were given bilateral punctures; the patients in the single-needle group were given regular single-needle punctures on each side. According to the tumor position and size, patients in the multineedle group were given 1 or 2 additional needle punctures, which were no less than 1 cm away from the posterior wall of the vertebral body, to ensure that the needle tips were 3-dimensionally distributed within the tumor (Fig. 1). A sufficient number of 125I seeds were implanted according to the treatment planning system after the successful puncture. The PMMA bone cement was prepared on site and was drawn into the syringe after seed implantation. The cement was not injected until the polymerization process of the PMMA was in the waiting phase, and lateral fluoroscopy was used to closely monitor the injection process to prevent leakage of bone cement from the vertebral bodies. The number of implanted 125I seeds was calculated according to the treatment planning system. The seeds were distributed densely in the single-needle group, and the spatial pattern was significantly different from the planned spatial pattern due to the single-needle puncture procedure. All patients were assisted out of bed and given orthotics after 24 hours of bed rest, and all were reexamined via CT after surgery. The follow-up duration for all patients was not less than 3 months, and no deaths occurred during the 3-month follow-up period.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Images from 3 different cases showing the PVP techniques. A: Axial T2-weighted MR image of a 59-year-old woman with thoracic vertebral metastasis (T-4) from lung cancer. The tumor was located on the left side of the vertebral body. B: Anteroposterior radiograph showing 2 needle punctures made on the left side of the T-4 vertebra. C: Sagittal reconstructed CT scan of a 50-year-old man with a thoracic vertebral metastasis (T-12) from colon cancer. The tumor underwent diffuse growth in the vertebral body. The CT scan revealed that it had invaded and destroyed the posterior wall of the vertebral body. D: Anteroposterior radiograph showing 2 needle punctures made on each side of the T-12 vertebra. E: Lateral radiograph of a 76-year-old woman with a thoracic vertebral metastasis (T-7) from lung cancer. The tumor was located on the right side of the vertebral body. A reasonable seed distribution is shown before the cement injection. F: Anteroposterior radiograph demonstrating seed and bone cement distributions in the T-7 vertebra.

Efficacy Evaluation

Computed tomography scans were obtained 3 months after seed implantation. According to the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST),18 a complete response is the disappearance of all target lesions for more than 4 weeks; a partial response occurs when all the target lesions decrease by more than 50% for more than 4 weeks; progressive disease occurs when all the target lesions increase by more than 25%; and stable disease is the index between a partial response and progressive disease, that is, all the target lesions increase by less than 25% or decrease by less than 50%. The response rate and disease control rate are commonly used clinical indices: the response rate = (complete response + partial response)/total cases × 100%; the disease control rate = (complete response + partial response + stable disease)/total cases × 100%.

Pain was scored according to a visual analog scale (VAS), and improvement in the quality of life was analyzed with the Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score. The data were obtained before treatment, and 1 week and 3 months after surgery.

Statistical Analysis

Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS Inc.). The data were expressed as means ± SDs; the measurement data were analyzed with the Student t-test, and p < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant.

Results

All patients underwent successful surgical operations. There was no metastatic disease in other vertebrae or in other organ systems. All patients completed the 3 months of follow-up, but 4 patients in the single-needle group and 3 patients in the multineedle group died 6 months after surgery. The outcomes at 3 months after the operation in the single-needle group were as follows: complete response, 0 vertebrae; partial response, 19 vertebrae; stable disease, 6 vertebrae; progressive disease, 1 vertebrae; response rate 73.1%; and disease control rate 96.2% (Table 1). The outcomes in the multineedle group at 3 months after the operation were as follows: complete response, 0 vertebrae; partial response, 18 vertebrae; stable disease, 3 vertebrae; progressive disease, 0 vertebrae; response rate 85.7%; and disease control rate 100% (Table 1). Overall, 8–30 radioactive 125I seeds were implanted into each vertebral body (mean 18.5 seeds/segment); the number of seeds implanted into the appendix and the paraspinal metastasis lesion sites was 4–10 seeds/segment. No significant difference between the 2 groups was observed in the number of seeds implanted into each vertebral body. The volumes of bone cement injected into the thoracic vertebrae and lumbar vertebrae were 1.5–4.5 ml/segment and 1.5–7.5 ml/segment, respectively. The average volume of injection was 2.3 ± 0.5 ml/segment in the single-needle group and 3.9 ± 1.4 ml/segment in the multineedle group, a significant difference (p < 0.05). No postoperative complications, including infections, blood vessel and spinal cord injuries, or pulmonary emboli, were observed in either group. There were 3 cases of bone cement leakage, including 1 case of intervertebral space leakage and 2 cases of paravertebral vein leakage. No cases of leakage were accompanied by any clinical symptoms.

TABLE 1:

Response rate and disease control rate comparison between the single-needle and multineedle groups

Outcome Measure3 Mos Postop (%)χ2p Value
response rate
 single-needle group73.15.1160.024
 multineedle group85.7
disease control rate
 single-needle group96.24.5190.034
 multineedle group100

Back pain was significantly alleviated in all patients after surgery. The VAS scores were significantly decreased in both groups at 1 week and 3 months after the operation compared with the preoperative scores (p < 0.05; Table 2), but no intergroup differences were observed (p > 0.05). The postoperative quality of life was improved in both groups: the KPS scores significantly increased compared with the preoperative scores (p < 0.05), and the postoperative KPS scores were significantly higher in the multineedle group than in the single-needle group (p < 0.05). No intergroup differences were observed in pain alleviation, but as previously noted, the bone cement injection volume was significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05). The clinical response rate and disease control rate at 3 months after the operation were significantly different between the 2 groups (p < 0.05), with the multineedle technique shown to be more effective than the single-needle technique (Table 1).

TABLE 2:

Comparison between preoperative and postoperative VAS and KPS scores*

EvaluationVAS ScoreKPS Score
preop
 single-needle group7.7 ± 1.345.6 ± 4.3
 multineedle group8.0 ± 1.242.3 ± 5.8
1 wk postop
 single-needle group2.1 ± 0.881.6 ± 6.2
 multineedle group2.4 ± 1.187.4 ± 7.1
3 mos postop
 single-needle group2.6 ± 1.080.1 ± 7.3
 multineedle group2.2 ± 1.386.1 ± 6.4

All values given as mean ± SD.

Discussion

Spinal metastases usually induce severe pain or even pathological fractures that may compress the spinal cord and result in limb sensory and motor disorders. All of these factors not only seriously affect the quality of life of cancer patients but also hasten death. The treatment principles include bone pain management, improvement in the quality of life, the prevention of complications, and improvement in the prognosis. Traditional surgical methods are associated with major trauma, a high incidence of complications, and long periods of bed rest that are difficult for patients with metastatic spinal tumors to tolerate, and multivertebral body damage cannot be eliminated with traditional surgery.8 Traditional chemotherapy also has many disadvantages, such as long cycles and significant adverse effects, which might not be tolerable in unfit patients (such as the weak, elderly, those with poor performance status, and others).

Radiation therapy is accepted as the first-line choice for most patients with metastatic spinal tumors.20 125I brachytherapy was introduced in radiation therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer in 1965.6,7 Brachytherapy is the permanent placement of radioactive sources inside or next to the tumor. Radioactive 125I seeds persistently kill all tumor cells in the growth cycle. Therefore, brachytherapy with 125I seeds has more effective results than those obtained with the repeated short-term doses of radiation used in conventional EBRT.5,24 To cover the entire tumor and marginal subclinical area effectively, the placement of the 125I seeds must be guided with a 3D treatment planning system to achieve an ideal 125I seed spatial pattern. The treatment planning system digitally processes the imaging data of the patients, constructs a 3D digital model of the target region, and designs an ideal seed distribution pattern according to the tumor boundaries, the location of key tissues, and the prescribed radiation dose; therefore, the radioactive seeds can be distributed more precisely and comprehensively. However, the 3D distribution of radioactive 125I seeds is difficult to achieve in a traditional one-needle-through-each-vertebral-pedicle PVP operation; thus, we revised the single-needle puncture method to a multineedle puncture method. In this manner, we were able to ensure that the radioactive seeds were distributed as much as possible according to the ideal pattern preoperatively determined by the treatment planning system.

Since Galibert et al.11 successfully treated 1 patient with a cervical vertebral hemangioma using PVP in 1984, this method has become an important approach in the treatment of vertebral tumor metastases because of the minimal trauma, minor complications, and good efficacy of PVP.14 This method can stabilize collapsed vertebral bodies, destroy cancer cells and pain receptors, and block the vessels of tumors. However, as a type of local treatment measure, PVP can kill only the tumor cells that surround the PMMA, the active time is quite short, and the tumor cells cannot be killed persistently. To enhance the efficacy of PVP, some authors combined it with the interstitial implantation of 125I seeds.25 It has even been reported that PVP with 125I brachytherapy reduces the incidence ratio of myelopathy in clinical settings.26,27 In our study, there were no cases of myelopathy, either in the multineedle puncture group or in the single-needle puncture group. Because of the immediate efficacy of PMMA in the treatment of vertebral tumor metastases, it is difficult to determine the difference in early outcomes of PVP and PVP combined with interstitial implantation of radioactive seeds. Furthermore, most of the patients in both groups refused to accept a late operation. Therefore, to provide the patients with a long-term tumor killing effect, we did not include a control group using PMMA only.

The primary complication of this combined treatment method was bone cement leakage induced by the PVP, although there were no clinical symptoms in either group. In the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures, the unanimous consensus is that there is no significant correlation between bone cement injection volume and clinical pain alleviation, and 1.0–2.0 ml of PMMA injected into the thoracolumbar vertebrae produced good analgesic effects.16 Belkoff et al.4 reported that 2 ml of bone cement could restore vertebral strength; however, for spinal metastases, we recommend injecting more bone cement into the tumor tissue to increase the contact area between the bone cement and tumor tissue. By doing so, more tumor tissue can be destroyed by the bone cement. However, in many cases in this study, the CT scans revealed a large number of tumors that had invaded and destroyed the posterior wall of the vertebral body. This situation is common for osteolytic vertebral metastases. Mousavi et al.17 reported that cement extravasation occurred in 85.7% of patients with metastatic spinal tumors, although without significant clinical complications. Baroud et al.2 believed that the leakage rate of bone cement was positively correlated with the injection volume. The multineedle puncture method provides an opportunity to inject a greater volume of cement with the same injection volume via each needle.

Conclusions

Percutaneous vertebroplasty combined with the multineedle or single-needle interstitial implantation of 125I seeds showed good clinical efficacy in alleviating the pain of spinal metastases in this study. However, the multineedle puncture approach has many advantages, such as more reasonable seed distribution patterns, increased bone cement injection volumes, and less cement extravasation. Both the control of spinal metastases and the postoperative quality of life in the multineedle group were better than those in the single-needle group. However, this operation demands a high skill level of the surgeon. Serious surgical complications can occur if the surgeon does not have extensive experience in vertebral body punctures, especially upper thoracic punctures.

There were some limitations in this preliminary clinical trial. To observe the effects of PVP and brachytherapy and to exclude the effects of open surgery, chemotherapy, and EBRT, the patients in this study were in poorer health than typical patients with vertebral metastatic tumors, and they were only a small portion of all patients with vertebral metastatic tumors. The small patient population also prevented us from establishing a control group, specifically a group using only PMMA.

The VAS and KPS scores can be affected easily by many factors, especially when new metastatic disease occurs in additional vertebrae or in other organ systems. This is only a preliminary clinical study to compare the effects of multineedle or single-needle placement at delivering 125I and bone cement into metastatic spinal lesions. In the future, we will attempt to include a larger population of patients and a control group, as well as a longer follow-up period, to formulate more definitive conclusions regarding these methods.

Disclosure

The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper.

Author contributions to the study and manuscript preparation include the following. Conception and design: T Li. Acquisition of data: Z Wang, Liu, Han, P Wang. Analysis and interpretation of data: J Li, Liu, Han, P Wang. Drafting the article: T Li, Z Wang. Critically revising the article: all authors. Reviewed submitted version of manuscript: all authors. Approved the final version of the manuscript on behalf of all authors: T Li. Statistical analysis: J Li, Liu. Administrative/technical/material support: T Li, J Li, Liu. Study supervision: T Li.

References

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    Akino YDas IJBartlett GKZhang HThompson EZook JE: Evaluation of superficial dosimetry between treatment planning system and measurement for several breast cancer treatment techniques. Med Phys 40:0117142013

  • 2

    Baroud GCrookshank MBohner M: High-viscosity cement significantly enhances uniformity of cement filling in vertebroplasty: an experimental model and study on cement leakage. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 31:256225682006

  • 3

    Bartels RHvan der Linden YMvan der Graaf WT: Spinal extradural metastasis: review of current treatment options. CA Cancer J Clin 58:2452592008

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    Belkoff SMMathis JMJasper LEDeramond H: The biomechanics of vertebroplasty. The effect of cement volume on mechanical behavior. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 26:153715412001

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    Borchers HKirschner-Hermanns RBrehmer BTietze LReineke TPinkawa M: Permanent 125I-seed brachytherapy or radical prostatectomy: a prospective comparison considering oncological and quality of life results. BJU Int 94:8058112004

  • 6

    Carlton CE JrScardino PT: Combined interstitial and external irradiation for prostatic cancer. Prog Clin Biol Res 243B:1411691987

  • 7

    Charyulu KBlock NSudarsanam A: Preoperative extended field radiation with I-125 seed implant in prostatic cancer: a preliminary report of a randomized study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 5:195719611979

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    Cybulski GR: Methods of surgical stabilization for metastatic disease of the spine. Neurosurgery 25:2402521989

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    Erkan SWu CMehbod AACho WTransfeldt EE: Biomechanical comparison of transpedicular versus extrapedicular vertebroplasty using polymethylmethacrylate. J Spinal Disord Tech 23:1801852010

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    Feiz-Erfan IRhines LDWeinberg JS: The role of surgery in the management of metastatic spinal tumors. Semin Oncol 35:1081172008

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    Galibert PDeramond HRosat PLe Gars D: [Preliminary note on the treatment of vertebral angioma by percutaneous acrylic vertebroplasty.]. Neurochirurgie 33:1661681987. (Fr)

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    Georgy BA: Vertebroplasty technique in metastatic disease. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 20:1691772010

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    Huang JYFollowill DSWang XAKry SF: Accuracy and sources of error of out-of field dose calculations by a commercial treatment planning system for intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatments. J Appl Clin Med Phys 14:41392013

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    Jang JSLee SH: Efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty combined with radiotherapy in osteolytic metastatic spinal tumors. J Neurosurg Spine 2:2432482005

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    Jemal ASiegel RWard EMurray TXu JThun MJ: Cancer statistics, 2007. CA Cancer J Clin 57:43662007

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    Jensen MEEvans AJMathis JMKallmes DFCloft HJDion JE: Percutaneous polymethylmethacrylate vertebroplasty in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures: technical aspects. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 18:189719041997

  • 17

    Mousavi PRoth SFinkelstein JCheung GWhyne C: Volumetric quantification of cement leakage following percutaneous vertebroplasty in metastatic and osteoporotic vertebrae. J Neurosurg 99:1 Suppl56592003

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    Park JOLee SISong SYKim KKim WSJung CW: Measuring response in solid tumors: comparison of RECIST and WHO response criteria. Jpn J Clin Oncol 33:5335372003

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    Paton GRFrangou EFourney DR: Contemporary treatment strategy for spinal metastasis: the “LMNOP” system. Can J Neurol Sci 38:3964032011

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    Ptashnikov DAUsikov VDKorytova LI: [Current aspects of surgical treatment for primary and metastatic tumors of the spine combined with radiation and chemotherapy.]. Vopr Onkol 51:3003102005. (Russian)

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    Scutellari PNAntinolfi GGaleotti RGiganti M: [Metastatic bone disease. Strategies for imaging.]. Minerva Med 94:77902003. (Italian)

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    Wallace RE: Empirical dosimetric characterization of model I125-SL 125iodine brachytherapy source in phantom. Med Phys 27:279628022000

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    Witham TFKhavkin YAGallia GLWolinsky JPGokaslan ZL: Surgery insight: current management of epidural spinal cord compression from metastatic spine disease. Nat Clin Pract Neurol 2:87942006

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    Xue JWaterman FHandler JGressen E: Localization of linked 125I seeds in postimplant TRUS images for prostate brachytherapy dosimetry. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 62:9129192005

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    Yang ZYang DXie LSun YHuang YSun H: Treatment of metastatic spinal tumors by percutaneous vertebroplasty versus percutaneous vertebroplasty combined with interstitial implantation of 125I seeds. Acta Radiol 50:114211482009

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Article Information

Address correspondence to: Tao Li, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Zibo Central Hospital of Binzhou Medical College, 54 Gongqingtuan Xi Rd., Zibo, Shandong, China 255036. email: litaozhongguo@vip.163.com.

Please include this information when citing this paper: published online February 14, 2014; DOI: 10.3171/2014.1.SPINE13645.

© AANS, except where prohibited by US copyright law.

Headings

Figures

  • View in gallery

    Images from 3 different cases showing the PVP techniques. A: Axial T2-weighted MR image of a 59-year-old woman with thoracic vertebral metastasis (T-4) from lung cancer. The tumor was located on the left side of the vertebral body. B: Anteroposterior radiograph showing 2 needle punctures made on the left side of the T-4 vertebra. C: Sagittal reconstructed CT scan of a 50-year-old man with a thoracic vertebral metastasis (T-12) from colon cancer. The tumor underwent diffuse growth in the vertebral body. The CT scan revealed that it had invaded and destroyed the posterior wall of the vertebral body. D: Anteroposterior radiograph showing 2 needle punctures made on each side of the T-12 vertebra. E: Lateral radiograph of a 76-year-old woman with a thoracic vertebral metastasis (T-7) from lung cancer. The tumor was located on the right side of the vertebral body. A reasonable seed distribution is shown before the cement injection. F: Anteroposterior radiograph demonstrating seed and bone cement distributions in the T-7 vertebra.

References

1

Akino YDas IJBartlett GKZhang HThompson EZook JE: Evaluation of superficial dosimetry between treatment planning system and measurement for several breast cancer treatment techniques. Med Phys 40:0117142013

2

Baroud GCrookshank MBohner M: High-viscosity cement significantly enhances uniformity of cement filling in vertebroplasty: an experimental model and study on cement leakage. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 31:256225682006

3

Bartels RHvan der Linden YMvan der Graaf WT: Spinal extradural metastasis: review of current treatment options. CA Cancer J Clin 58:2452592008

4

Belkoff SMMathis JMJasper LEDeramond H: The biomechanics of vertebroplasty. The effect of cement volume on mechanical behavior. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 26:153715412001

5

Borchers HKirschner-Hermanns RBrehmer BTietze LReineke TPinkawa M: Permanent 125I-seed brachytherapy or radical prostatectomy: a prospective comparison considering oncological and quality of life results. BJU Int 94:8058112004

6

Carlton CE JrScardino PT: Combined interstitial and external irradiation for prostatic cancer. Prog Clin Biol Res 243B:1411691987

7

Charyulu KBlock NSudarsanam A: Preoperative extended field radiation with I-125 seed implant in prostatic cancer: a preliminary report of a randomized study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 5:195719611979

8

Cybulski GR: Methods of surgical stabilization for metastatic disease of the spine. Neurosurgery 25:2402521989

9

Erkan SWu CMehbod AACho WTransfeldt EE: Biomechanical comparison of transpedicular versus extrapedicular vertebroplasty using polymethylmethacrylate. J Spinal Disord Tech 23:1801852010

10

Feiz-Erfan IRhines LDWeinberg JS: The role of surgery in the management of metastatic spinal tumors. Semin Oncol 35:1081172008

11

Galibert PDeramond HRosat PLe Gars D: [Preliminary note on the treatment of vertebral angioma by percutaneous acrylic vertebroplasty.]. Neurochirurgie 33:1661681987. (Fr)

12

Georgy BA: Vertebroplasty technique in metastatic disease. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 20:1691772010

13

Huang JYFollowill DSWang XAKry SF: Accuracy and sources of error of out-of field dose calculations by a commercial treatment planning system for intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatments. J Appl Clin Med Phys 14:41392013

14

Jang JSLee SH: Efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty combined with radiotherapy in osteolytic metastatic spinal tumors. J Neurosurg Spine 2:2432482005

15

Jemal ASiegel RWard EMurray TXu JThun MJ: Cancer statistics, 2007. CA Cancer J Clin 57:43662007

16

Jensen MEEvans AJMathis JMKallmes DFCloft HJDion JE: Percutaneous polymethylmethacrylate vertebroplasty in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures: technical aspects. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 18:189719041997

17

Mousavi PRoth SFinkelstein JCheung GWhyne C: Volumetric quantification of cement leakage following percutaneous vertebroplasty in metastatic and osteoporotic vertebrae. J Neurosurg 99:1 Suppl56592003

18

Park JOLee SISong SYKim KKim WSJung CW: Measuring response in solid tumors: comparison of RECIST and WHO response criteria. Jpn J Clin Oncol 33:5335372003

19

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