Minimally invasive surgery for spinal cerebrospinal fluid leaks in spontaneous intracranial hypotension

Jürgen BeckDepartments of Neurosurgery and

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Ulrich HubbeDepartments of Neurosurgery and

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Jan-Helge KlinglerDepartments of Neurosurgery and

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Roland RoelzDepartments of Neurosurgery and

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Luisa Mona KrausDepartments of Neurosurgery and

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Florian VolzDepartments of Neurosurgery and

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Niklas LützenNeuroradiology, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg; and

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Horst UrbachNeuroradiology, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg; and

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Kristin KieselbachInterdisciplinary Pain Center, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

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Christian FungDepartments of Neurosurgery and

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OBJECTIVE

Spinal CSF leaks cause spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). Surgical closure of spinal CSF leaks is the treatment of choice for persisting leaks. Surgical approaches vary, and there are no studies in which minimally invasive techniques were used. In this study, the authors aimed to detail the safety and feasibility of minimally invasive microsurgical sealing of spinal CSF leaks using nonexpandable tubular retractors.

METHODS

Consecutive patients with SIH and a confirmed spinal CSF leak treated at a single institution between April 2019 and December 2020 were included in the study. Surgery was performed via a dorsal 2.5-cm skin incision using nonexpandable tubular retractors and a tailored interlaminar fenestration and, if needed, a transdural approach. The primary outcome was successful sealing of the dura, and the secondary outcome was the occurrence of complications.

RESULTS

Fifty-eight patients, 65.5% of whom were female (median age 46 years [IQR 36–55 years]), with 38 ventral leaks, 17 lateral leaks, and 2 CSF venous fistulas were included. In 56 (96.6%) patients, the leak could be closed, and in 2 (3.4%) patients the leak was missed because of misinterpretation of the imaging studies. One of these patients underwent successful reoperation, and the other patient decided to undergo surgery at another institution. Two other patients had to undergo reoperation because of insufficient closure and a persisting leak. The rate of permanent neurological deficit was 1.7%, the revision rate for a persisting or recurring leak was 3.4%, and the overall revision rate was 10.3%. The rate of successful sealing during the primary closure attempt was 96.6% and 3.4% patients needed a secondary attempt. Clinical short-term outcome at discharge was unchanged in 14 patients and improved in 25 patients, and 19 patients had signs of rebound intracranial hypertension.

CONCLUSIONS

Minimally invasive surgery with tubular retractors and a tailored interlaminar fenestration and, if needed, a transdural approach is safe and effective for the treatment of spinal CSF leaks. The authors suggest performing a minimally invasive closure of spinal CSF leaks in specialized centers.

ABBREVIATIONS

MRC = Medical Research Council; SIH = spontaneous intracranial hypotension.
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