Successful endoscopic identification of the bleeding source in the ventral dura of the cervical spine in a case of superficial siderosis

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The authors report on the case of a 65-year-old man suffering progressive gait disturbance and hearing impairment due to superficial siderosis (SS). According to the literature, repeated hemorrhage into the subarachnoid space causes SS; however, the bleeding source remains unknown in half of SS patients. In the presented case, preoperative MRI revealed a fluid-filled intraspinal cavity extending from C2 to T8 with a dural defect at the ventral C7 level. During surgery, the dural defect was seen to connect to the intraspinal cavity filled with xanthochromic fluid. Importantly, endoscopic observation verified that the rupture of fragile bridging veins in the cavity was the definite bleeding source. Postoperative MRI confirmed disappearance of the intraspinal cavity, and the patient’s symptoms gradually improved. The use of endoscopy helped to establish the diagnosis and led to definite treatment. Fragile bridging veins in the fluid-filled interdural layers were novelly verified as a bleeding source in SS. Recognizing this phenomenon is important since it can establish closure of the dural defect as a definite treatment in SS with an intraspinal cavity.

ABBREVIATIONS CSF = cerebrospinal fluid; SS = superficial siderosis.
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Contributor Notes

Correspondence Toshiki Endo: Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan. endo@nsg.med.tohoku.ac.jp.INCLUDE WHEN CITING Published online February 21, 2020; DOI: 10.3171/2019.12.SPINE191102.Disclosures The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper.
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