Leiomyogenic tumor of the spine: surgical treatments and long-term outcomes of 12 consecutive patients

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OBJECTIVE

Leiomyogenic tumor of the spine is rare with limited published information. Here, the authors report the clinical features and long-term surgical outcomes and investigate the prognostic factors affecting disease-free survival (DFS).

METHODS

Twelve patients presented to the authors’ institution for surgical treatment from January 2005 to December 2018. The clinical characteristics and outcomes were retrospectively reviewed, and the DFS rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to identify the potential prognostic factors, with p < 0.05 considered statistically significant.

RESULTS

The mean patient age was 49.7 ± 12.9 years (range 22–73 years). Four patients underwent marginal en bloc resection, and 8 patients underwent conventional piecemeal resection. Pathological diagnosis revealed leiomyosarcoma in 9 patients and leiomyoma in 3 patients. Three patients had tumor recurrence at a mean follow-up of 10.4 months (range 7.0–15.0 months), while 4 developed metastases at an average of 13.8 months (range 5.5–21.3 months) postoperatively. During the mean follow-up of 33.7 months (range 9.6–78.5 months), the estimated 1- and 5-year DFS rates were 66.7% and 38.2%, respectively. Albumin loss > 20 g/L after surgery, Ki-67 positivity > 10%, and piecemeal resection were correlated with worse DFS.

CONCLUSIONS

Surgical management of spinal leiomyogenic tumors is challenging due to the high rate of recurrence and metastases. En bloc resection should be performed in eligible patients. Albumin loss > 20 g/L and the Ki-67 index may be independent factors affecting prognosis.

ABBREVIATIONS DFS = disease-free survival; DVT = deep venous thrombosis; ECOG-PS = Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score; SINS = spinal instability neoplastic score; VAS = visual analog scale; WBB = Weinstein-Boriani-Biagini.
Article Information

Contributor Notes

Correspondence Jianru Xiao: Spinal Tumor Center, Changzheng Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China. jianruxiao83@smmu.edu.cn; czxiaojianru@163.com.INCLUDE WHEN CITING Published online October 4, 2019; DOI: 10.3171/2019.7.SPINE19650.

S.H., Y.X., and J.L. contributed equally to this study.

Disclosures The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper.
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