Intraoperative real-time identification of abnormal vessels within the bright field by superselective arterial injection of saline and its slow-motion recording using a high frame rate digital camera during surgical treatment of spinal arteriovenous shunts: technical note

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The authors describe a novel method of observing blood flow in abnormal vessels with slow-motion video during surgical treatment of spinal arteriovenous shunts. The method is based on the use of superselective angiography with saline for visualizing abnormal vessels in bright field and commercially available high frame rate digital camera for recording slow-motion video.

ABBREVIATIONS ASA = anterior spinal artery; AVF = arteriovenous fistula; AVM = arteriovenous malformation; AVS = arteriovenous shunt; dAVF = dural AVF; DSA = digital subtraction angiography; fps = frames per second; HFR = high frame rate; ICG = indocyanine green; NIR = near infrared; OPLL = ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament; SAI = superselective arterial injection; SAI-ICG = SAI of ICG; SAIS = SAI of saline.
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Correspondence Shuji Hamauchi: Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan. hamashuji@yahoo.co.jp.INCLUDE WHEN CITING Published online August 10, 2018; DOI: 10.3171/2018.3.SPINE1854.Disclosures The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper.
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