Development and validation of a predictive model for 90-day readmission following elective spine surgery

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Hospital readmissions lead to a significant increase in the total cost of care in patients undergoing elective spine surgery. Understanding factors associated with an increased risk of postoperative readmission could facilitate a reduction in such occurrences. The aims of this study were to develop and validate a predictive model for 90-day hospital readmission following elective spine surgery.


All patients undergoing elective spine surgery for degenerative disease were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal registry. All 90-day readmissions were prospectively recorded. For predictive modeling, all covariates were selected by choosing those variables that were significantly associated with readmission and by incorporating other relevant variables based on clinical intuition and the Akaike information criterion. Eighty percent of the sample was randomly selected for model development and 20% for model validation. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with Bayesian model averaging (BMA) to model the odds of 90-day readmission. Goodness of fit was assessed via the C-statistic, that is, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), using the training data set. Discrimination (predictive performance) was assessed using the C-statistic, as applied to the 20% validation data set.


A total of 2803 consecutive patients were enrolled in the registry, and their data were analyzed for this study. Of this cohort, 227 (8.1%) patients were readmitted to the hospital (for any cause) within 90 days postoperatively. Variables significantly associated with an increased risk of readmission were as follows (OR [95% CI]): lumbar surgery 1.8 [1.1–2.8], government-issued insurance 2.0 [1.4–3.0], hypertension 2.1 [1.4–3.3], prior myocardial infarction 2.2 [1.2–3.8], diabetes 2.5 [1.7–3.7], and coagulation disorder 3.1 [1.6–5.8]. These variables, in addition to others determined a priori to be clinically relevant, comprised 32 inputs in the predictive model constructed using BMA. The AUC value for the training data set was 0.77 for model development and 0.76 for model validation.


Identification of high-risk patients is feasible with the novel predictive model presented herein. Appropriate allocation of resources to reduce the postoperative incidence of readmission may reduce the readmission rate and the associated health care costs.

ABBREVIATIONS ASA = American Association of Anesthesiologists; AUC = area under the receiver operating characteristic curve; BMA = Bayesian model averaging; CMS = Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; HRRP = Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program.

Article Information

Correspondence Clinton J. Devin: Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.

INCLUDE WHEN CITING Published online June 15, 2018; DOI: 10.3171/2018.1.SPINE17505.

Disclosures Dr. Devin has been a consultant for and has received support from Stryker Spine for non–study-related clinical or research effort. Dr. McGirt has been a consultant for Stryker.

© AANS, except where prohibited by US copyright law.



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    The AUC for the 90-day readmission model. Figure is available in color online only.


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