Atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation: a review of surgical indications, fusion rate, complications, and lessons learned in 67 pediatric patients

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Object. In this, the second of two articles regarding C1–2 transarticular screw fixation, the authors discuss their surgical experience in treating patients 16 years of age and younger, detailing the rate of fusion, complication avoidance, and lessons learned in the pediatric population.

Methods. The authors retrospectively reviewed 67 consecutive patients (23 girls and 44 boys) younger than 16 years of age in whom at least one C1–2 transarticular screw fixation procedure was performed. A total of 127 transarticular screws were placed in these 67 patients whose mean age at time of surgery was 9 years (range 1.7–16 years). The indications for surgery were trauma in 24 patients, os odontoideum in 22 patients, and congenital anomaly in 17 patients. Forty-four patients underwent atlantoaxial fusion and 23 patients underwent occipitocervical fusion. Two of the 67 patients underwent halo therapy postoperatively.

All patients were followed for a minimum of 3 months. In all 67 patients successful fusion was achieved.Complications occurred in seven patients (10.4%), including two vertebral artery injuries.

Conclusions. The use of C1–2 transarticular screw fixation, combined with appropriate atlantoaxial and craniovertebral bone/graft constructs, resulted in a 100% fusion rate in a large consecutive series of pediatric patients. The risks of C1–2 transarticular screw fixation can be minimized in this population by undertaking careful patient selection and meticulous preoperative planning.

Article Information

Address reprint requests to: Douglas L. Brockmeyer, M.D., Department of Neurosurgery, Primary Children's Medical Center, 100 North Medical Drive, Suite 1475, Salt Lake City, Utah 84113. email: douglas.brockmeyer@hsc.utah.edu.

© AANS, except where prohibited by US copyright law.

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Figures

  • View in gallery

    Lateral plain radiograph of C1–2 transarticular screw construct used in this graft and cable—augmented fusion 3 months after surgery. Note the solid bridging bone between the C-1 and C-2 lamina.

  • View in gallery

    A: Lateral plain radiograph of an occiput—C2 construct 1 day following surgery. B: Sagittal CT reconstruction 4 months after surgery revealing solid fusion.

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